Korean J Physiol Pharmacol.  2020 Jan;24(1):27-37. 10.4196/kjpp.2020.24.1.27.

Inhibitory effect of carvacrol on lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment in rats

Affiliations
  • 1Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. bombi@khu.ac.kr
  • 2Center for Converging Humanities, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.
  • 3Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is an important process underlying a wide variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Carvacrol (CAR) is a phenolic monoterpene commonly used as a food additive due to its antibacterial properties, but it has also been shown to exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of CAR on inflammation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In our study, lipopolysaccharide was injected into the lateral ventricle of rats to induce memory impairment and neuroinflammation. Daily administration of CAR (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 21 days improved recognition, discrimination, and memory impairments relative to untreated controls. CAR administration significantly attenuated expression of several inflammatory factors in the brain, including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, CAR significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, and decreased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA. Taken together, these results show that CAR can improve memory impairment caused by neuroinflammation. This cognitive enhancement is due to the anti-inflammatory effects of CAR medicated by its regulation of BDNF and TLR4. Thus, CAR has significant potential as an inhibitor of memory degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.

Keyword

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Cytokines; Inflammation; Lipopolysaccharides; Memory

MeSH Terms

Animals
Brain
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Cyclooxygenase 2
Cytokines
Discrimination (Psychology)
Food Additives
Hippocampus
Inflammation
Lateral Ventricles
Lipopolysaccharides
Memory*
Necrosis
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Neuroprotective Agents
Phenol
Prefrontal Cortex
Rats*
RNA, Messenger
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Cyclooxygenase 2
Cytokines
Food Additives
Lipopolysaccharides
Neuroprotective Agents
Phenol
RNA, Messenger
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Full Text Links
  • KJPP
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
    DB Error: unknown error