Biomol Ther.  2013 Sep;21(5):381-390.

Ginsenoside Rg3 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments by Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Rats

  • 1Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea.
  • 2The Graduate School of Basic Science of Oriental Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea.


The purpose of this study was to examine whether ginsenoside Rg3 (GRg3) could improve learning and memory impairments and inflammatory reactions induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the brains of rats. The effects of GRg3 on proinflammatory mediators in the hippocampus and the underlying mechanisms of these effects were also investigated. Injection of LPS into the lateral ventricle caused chronic inflammation and produced deficits in learning in a memory-impairment animal model. Daily administration of GRg3 (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 21 consecutive days markedly improved the LPS-induced learning and memory disabilities demonstrated on the step-through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. GRg3 administration significantly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus, as assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunohistochemistry. Together, these findings suggest that GRg3 significantly attenuated LPS-induced cognitive impairment by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the rat brain. These results suggest that GRg3 may be effective for preventing or slowing the development of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, by improving cognitive and memory functions due to its anti-inflammatory activity in the brain.


Lipopolysaccharide; Memory; Inflammation; Ginsenoside Rg3; Morris water maze; Cyclooxygenase-2
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