Nutr Res Pract.  2015 Dec;9(6):619-627. 10.4162/nrp.2015.9.6.619.

Effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice

  • 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, and Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University, 2, Busandaehak-ro 63 beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735, Korea.
  • 2Erom R&D Center, Erom Co., Ltd., Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-943, Korea.


Colitis is a serious health problem, and chronic obesity is associated with the progression of colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet (HFD, 45%) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 2% w/v)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice.
Body weight, colon length, and colon weight-to-length ratio, were measured directly. Serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were determined using commercial kits. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were detected using a commercial ELISA kit. Histological study was performed using a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining assay. Colonic mRNA expressions of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by RT-PCR assay.
Body weight and obesity-related biomarkers (TG, TC, LDL, HDL, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin) were regulated and obesity was prevented in NRM treated mice. NRM significantly suppressed colon shortening and reduced colon weight-to-length ratio in HFD+DSS induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice (P < 0.05). Histological observations suggested that NRM reduced edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by HFD and DSS. In addition, NRM decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 and inhibited the mRNA expressions of these cytokines, and iNOS and COX-2 in colon mucosa (P < 0.05).
The results suggest that NRM has an anti-inflammatory effect against HFD and DSS-induced colitis in mice, and that these effects are due to the amelioration of HFD and/or DSS-induced inflammatory reactions.


Natural raw meal (NRM); anti-inflammation; cytokines; iNOS; COX-2
Full Text Links
  • NRP
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2021 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: