Nutr Res Pract.  2019 Apr;13(2):95-104. 10.4162/nrp.2019.13.2.95.

Anti-inflammatory effect of Lycium barbarum on polarized human intestinal epithelial cells

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, 99, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea. jacho@cnu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Agrofood Resources, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, RDA, Wanju, Jeonbuk 55365, Korea.
  • 3Elohim Co. R&D Center, Daejeon 34025, Korea.
  • 4Application Technology Center, Park System, Suwon, Gyeonggi 16229, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has rapidly escalated in Asia (including Korea) due to increasing westernized diet patterns subsequent to industrialization. Factors associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are demonstrated to be one of the major causes of IBD. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) on ER stress.
MATERIALS/METHODS
Mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell line and polarized Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells were treated with crude extract of the L. chinense fruit (LF). Paracellular permeability was measured to examine the effect of tight junction (TJ) integrity. The regulatory pathways of ER stress were evaluated in MEF knockout (KO) cell lines by qPCR for interleukin (IL) 6, IL8 and XBP1 spliced form (XBP1s). Immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP), XBP1s and CCAAT/enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP) expressions were measured by RT-PCR. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (SICM) at high resolution was applied to observe morphological changes after treatments.
RESULTS
Exposure to LF extract strengthened the TJ, both in the presence and absence of inflammation. In polarized Caco-2 pretreated with LF, induction in the expression of proinflammatory marker IL8 was not significant, whereas ER stress marker XBP1s expression was significantly increased. In wild type (wt) MEF cells, IL6, CHOP and XBP1 spliced form were dose-dependently induced when exposed to 12.5-50 µg/mL extract. However, absence of XBP1 or IRE1α in MEF cells abolished this effect.
CONCLUSION
Results of this study show that LF treatment enhances the barrier function and reduces inflammation and ER stress in an IRE1α-XBP1-dependent manner. These results suggest the preventive effect of LF on healthy intestine, and the possibility of reducing the degree of inflammatory symptoms in IBD patients.

Keyword

Lycium barbarum; ER stress; inflammation

MeSH Terms

Animals
Asia
Carrier Proteins
Cell Line
Diet
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Epithelial Cells*
Fibroblasts
Fruit
Humans*
Immunoglobulins
Inflammation
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Interleukin-6
Interleukin-8
Interleukins
Intestines
Lycium*
Mice
Microscopy
Permeability
Tight Junctions
Carrier Proteins
Immunoglobulins
Interleukin-6
Interleukin-8
Interleukins
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