J Cancer Prev.  2015 Jun;20(2):97-105. 10.15430/JCP.2015.20.2.97.

Association of Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium With Genetic Polymorphisms in Colorectal Neoplasia

  • 1Department of Cancer Control and Policy, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea. jskim@ncc.re.kr


The incidence trends of colorectal cancer have varied over time, and there is wide geographical variation across the world. Regarding colorectal cancer, diverse modifiable environmental or intrinsic risk factors have been investigated. This review summarizes the effects of both dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium in particular and diet-associated genetic factors on colorectal cancer risk. We searched the electronic database PubMed for articles published between January 2000 and March 2015. We reviewed case-control studies that included dietary factors, genetic polymorphisms, and gene-diet interactions in association with colorectal cancer risk. Overall, 21 studies were selected as eligible studies. These studies demonstrated that dietary consumption of vitamin D and calcium may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer or adenoma. Colorectal carcinogenesis was discussed in conjunction with dietary factors and mediating genetic factors. The epidemiological findings suggested that the gene-diet interactions may possibly alter the associations between dietary intake, genetic polymorphisms, and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, the reported effects of the same potential factors on colorectal cancer risk were inconsistent, depending on the study population and geographical location. This finding may imply the necessity of considering the environmental differences and genetic variations existing between individuals or specified populations. Therefore, further studies are required to investigate modifiable risk factors in diverse locations to derive useful implications for colorectal neoplasia.


Colorectal neoplasms; Vitamin D; Calcium; Genetic polymorphism; Environment-gene interaction

MeSH Terms

Case-Control Studies
Colorectal Neoplasms
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Variation
Polymorphism, Genetic*
Risk Factors
Vitamin D*
Vitamin D
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