Nutr Res Pract.  2017 Feb;11(1):3-10. 10.4162/nrp.2017.11.1.3.

Anti-inflammatory activity of a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from an enzymatic digest of brown seaweed Sargassum horneri in RAW 264.7 cells

Affiliations
  • 1Laboratory of Marine Bioresource Technology, Department of Marine Life Science, School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju 63243, Korea. youjinj@jejunu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Marine Bio Food Science, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 59626, Korea. gnahn@jnu.ac.kr
  • 3Department of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
Sargassum horneri is an edible brown alga that grows in the subtidal zone as an annual species along the coasts of South Korea, China, and Japan. Recently, an extreme amount of S. horneri moved into the coasts of Jeju Island from the east coast of China, which made huge economic and environmental loss to the Jeju Island. Thus, utilization of this biomass becomes a big issue with the local authorities. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of crude polysaccharides (CPs) extracted from S. horneri China strain in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.
MATERIALS/METHODS
CPs were precipitated from S. horneri digests prepared by enzyme assistant extraction using four food-grade enzymes (AMG, Celluclast, Viscozyme, and Alcalase). The production levels of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were measured by Griess assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured by using western blot. The IR spectrums of the CPs were recorded using a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer.
RESULTS
The polysaccharides from the Celluclast enzyme digest (CCP) showed the highest inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (ICâ‚…â‚€ value: 95.7 µg/mL). Also, CCP dose-dependently down-regulated the protein expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1β, compared to the only LPS-treated cells. In addition, CCP inhibited the activation of NF-κB p50 and p65 and the phosphorylation of MAPKs, including p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis showed that the FT-IR spectrum of CCP is similar to that of commercial fucoidan.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results suggest that CCP has anti-inflammatory activities and is a potential candidate for the formulation of a functional food ingredient or/and drug to treat inflammatory diseases.

Keyword

Macrophage; inflammation; sulfated polysaccharide; Sargassum horneri

MeSH Terms

Biomass
Blotting, Western
China
Cyclooxygenase 2
Cytokines
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Functional Food
Inflammation
Interleukins
Japan
Korea
Macrophages
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Nitric Oxide
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Phosphorylation
Phosphotransferases
Polysaccharides
RAW 264.7 Cells*
Sargassum*
Seaweed*
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Cyclooxygenase 2
Cytokines
Interleukins
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Nitric Oxide
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Phosphotransferases
Polysaccharides
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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