Nutr Res Pract.  2012 Aug;6(4):315-321.

Effects of kimchi supplementation on blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy with varying sodium content in spontaneously hypertensive rats

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition and Institute of Health Sciences, Korea University, San 1, Jeongreung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-703, Korea. mjshin@korea.ac.kr
  • 2DAESANG FNF Corporation, Seoul 131-220, Korea.

Abstract

We tested the effects of dietary intake of freeze-dried Korean traditional fermented cabbage (generally known as kimchi) with varying amounts of sodium on blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), as a control group, received a regular AIN-76 diet, and the SHRs were divided into four groups. The SHR group was fed a regular diet without kimchi supplementation, the SHR-L group was fed the regular diet supplemented with low sodium kimchi containing 1.4% salt by wet weight, which was provided in a freeze-dried form, the SHR-M group was supplemented with medium levels of sodium kimchi containing 2.4% salt, and the SHR-H group was supplemented with high sodium kimchi containing 3.0% salt. Blood pressure was measured over 6 weeks, and cardiac hypertrophy was examined by measuring heart and left ventricle weights and cardiac histology. SHRs showed higher blood pressure compared to that in WKY rats, which was further elevated by consuming high sodium containing kimchi but was not influenced by supplementing with low sodium kimchi. None of the SHR groups showed significant differences in cardiac and left ventricular mass or cardiomyocyte size. Levels of serum biochemical parameters, including blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, sodium, and potassium were not different among the groups. Elevations in serum levels of aldosterone in SHR rats decreased in the low sodium kimchi group. These results suggest that consuming low sodium kimchi may not adversely affect blood pressure and cardiac function even under a hypertensive condition.

Keyword

Blood pressure; kimchi; sodium; cardiac hypertrophy; SHR

MeSH Terms

Alanine Transaminase
Aldosterone
Animals
Aspartate Aminotransferases
Blood Pressure
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Brassica
Cardiomegaly
Creatinine
Diet
Heart
Heart Ventricles
Myocytes, Cardiac
Potassium
Rats
Rats, Inbred SHR
Rats, Inbred WKY
Sodium
Weights and Measures
Alanine Transaminase
Aldosterone
Aspartate Aminotransferases
Creatinine
Potassium
Sodium

Figure

  • Fig. 1 Changes in systolic blood pressure over 6 weeks of diets in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Each value represents the mean ± SE; n = 8, P < 0.05 as tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Duncan's multiple range test. Groups sharing the same letters are not significantly different.

  • Fig. 2 Comparison of cardiomyocyte diameters of the left ventricle in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Each value represents the mean ± SE; n = 8, P < 0.05, as tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Duncan's multiple range test. Groups sharing the same letter are not significantly different.

  • Fig. 3 Comparison of serum aldosterone levels in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Each value represents the mean ± SE; n = 8, P < 0.05, as tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Duncan's multiple range test. Groups sharing the same letters are not significantly different.


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