J Genet Med.  2013 Dec;10(2):81-87. 10.5734/JGM.2013.10.2.81.

Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 1

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea. cheonghi@snu.ac.kr
  • 2Research Coordination Center for Rare Diseases, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Kidney Research Institute, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA), a rare syndrome of systemic or renal mineralocorticoid resistance, is clinically characterized by hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and elevated plasma aldosterone levels with either renal salt wasting or hypertension. PHA is a heterogeneous disorder both clinically and genetically and can be divided into three subgroups; PHA type 1 (PHA1), type 2 (PHA2) and type 3 (PHA3). PHA1 and PHA2 are genetic disorders, and PHA3 is a secondary disease of transient mineralocorticoid resistance mostly associated with urinary tract infections and obstructive uropathies. PHA1 includes two different forms with different severity of the disease and phenotype: a systemic type of disease with autosomal recessive inheritance (caused by mutations of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel, ENaC) and a renal form with autosomal dominant inheritance (caused by mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor, MR). In the kidneys, the distal nephron takes charge of the fine regulation of water absorption and ion handling under the control of aldosterone. Two major intracellular actors necessary for the action of aldosterone are the MR and the ENaC. Impairment of the intracellular aldosterone signal transduction pathway results in resistance to the action of mineralocorticoids, which leads to PHA. Herein, ion handling the distal nephron and the clinico-genetic findings of PHA are reviewed with special emphasis on PHA type 1.


Aldosterone; Distal nephron; Epithelial sodium channel; Mineralocorticoid receptor; Pseudohypoaldosteronism
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