J Korean Acad Oral Health.  2020 Mar;44(1):13-19. 10.11149/jkaoh.2020.44.1.13.

Antibacterial effect of different concentrations of Galla Chinensis extract on cariogenic bacteria in a biofilm model

Affiliations
  • 1Dental Research Institution, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Preventive & Social Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. jjbh@snu.ac.kr

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
Galla chinensis inhibited the adherence of planktonic oral bacteria and acid production by cariogenic bacteria. However, little is known about the relevant conditions of Galla Chinensis extract (GCE) exposure time and concentration and the effect of GCE on the structural and functional activity of cariogenic bacteria. The antibacterial effects of natural G. Chinensis extract on S. mutans , S. sanguinis, and S. oralis biofilms were evaluated in vitro.
METHODS
Biofilms formed on glass surfaces were treated with different concentrations of GCE at different exposure times. The effects were assessed by examining the bactericidal activity, acidogenesis, minimum inhibitory concentration, and morphology.
RESULTS
There was a statistically significant difference in the bacterial growth inhibition depending on the concentration of the GCE, with bacterial growth being inhibited as the concentration of GCE increased. A concentration of 1.0 mg/ml GCE had similar bactericidal effects against S. mutans and S. oralis biofilms to those produced by 2.0 mg/ml CHX. In the 1.0 mg/ml GCE group, incomplete septa were also observed in the outline of the cell wall, together with disruption of the cell membrane. In addition, there was also a slight exudation of the intracellular content from the bacteria in the 1.0 mg/ml GCE and 2 mg/ml CHX groups.
CONCLUSIONS
These results indicate that GCE inhibits the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguinis, and S. oralis with increasing concentrations. It alters the microstructure of S. mutans biofilms. These results suggest that GCE might be a useful anti-bacterial agent for preventing dental caries.

Keyword

Streptococcus mutans; Galla Chinensis; Biofilms; Antibacterial effects

MeSH Terms

Bacteria*
Biofilms*
Cell Membrane
Cell Wall
Dental Caries
Glass
In Vitro Techniques
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Plankton
Streptococcus mutans

Figure

  • Fig. 1. The bacterial growth curve of S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. oralis biofilms by GCE concentration. After the biofilms had been exposed to the test solutions for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours, the number of colonies was counted to determine the CFU. There was a significant difference over time at all concentrations.

  • Fig. 2. TEM images of the S. mutans biofilm after 1 hour of treatment. The black arrows indicate the wall of S. mutans, and the white arrows indicate the intracellular contents. The scale bar is 100 nm. (A) 1% DMSO, (B) 2 mg/ml CHX, and (C) 1.0 mg/ml GCE. After the S. mutans biofilms had been exposed to 1% DMSO for 1 h as the negative control, the TEM showed a clear outline of the S. mutans cell wall and a peptidoglycan layer. However, most of the peptidoglycan layers of S. mutans in the CHX group had disappeared. In the 1.0 mg/ml GCE group, incomplete septa were also observed in the outline of the cell wall. In addition, there was a slight exudation of the intracellular contents in the 1.0 mg/ml GCE and 2 mg/ml CHX groups.


Reference

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