J Korean Acad Oral Health.  2018 Sep;42(3):90-96. 10.11149/jkaoh.2018.42.3.90.

Galla chinensis extracts and calcium induce remineralization and antibacterial effects of enamel in a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model

  • 1Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. jjbh@snu.ac.kr


The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of Galla chinensis extract (GCE) and calcium (CA) on enamel remineralization. The antibacterial effect of G. chinensis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm was also evaluated by examining the bacterial growth, acidogenesis, and morphology of the biofilm in vitro.
S. mutans biofilm was formed on bovine enamel specimens over a 72-h period and treated for 10 min with 1.0 mol CA, 4,000 ppm aqueous solution of GCE, or a combination of the two (GCE+CA). The enamel specimens were analyzed for enamel surface microhardness after remineralization. We tested the anti-cariogenic effects of GCE based on the inhibition of acid production, antibacterial activity, and morphological changes in S. mutans. The differences between the groups and antibacterial effects were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance.
GCE+CA group showed the highest efficacy in enhancing remineralization. The GCE group showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. mutans biofilm. Although the GCE+CA group showed significant antibacterial activity, it was less than that of the GCE group (P < 0.05). Both GCE and GCE+CA groups maintained a pH of approximately 7.0 for 1 h whereas the pH of the control group decreased rapidly from pH 7.3 to pH 6.1. SEM imaging revealed that S. mutans treated with GCE and GCE+CA showed irregular cell wall structure and showed fewer cells in the chain than the typical long chains observed in the control group.
This study found that natural G. chinensis significantly enhances enamel remineralization, and exerts synergistic effects with calcium. It also exerts strong bactericidal activity and inhibits acid production and changes in the microstructure of S. mutans biofilm.


Anti-bacterial agents; Combined effect; Galla chinensis; Remineralization
Full Text Links
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2021 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr