Allergy Asthma Immunol Res.  2020 Mar;12(2):322-337. 10.4168/aair.2020.12.2.322.

Imbalance of Gut Streptococcus, Clostridium, and Akkermansia Determines the Natural Course of Atopic Dermatitis in Infant

Affiliations
  • 1Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, Childhood Asthma Atopy Center, Environmental Health Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. sjhong@amc.seoul.kr
  • 3Environmental Health Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
  • 4Department of Life Science, Multidisciplinary Genome Institute, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea.
  • 5Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.
  • 6Department of Pediatrics, Mediplex Sejong Hospital, Incheon, Korea.
  • 7Department of Pediatrics, International St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
  • 8Department of Pediatrics, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
  • 9Department of Pediatrics, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Korea.
  • 10Department of Pediatrics, Dankuk University Hospital, Cheonan, Korea.
  • 11Department of Pediatrics, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
  • 12Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 13Department of Pediatrics, CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 14Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 15Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
The roles of gut microbiota on the natural course of atopic dermatitis (AD) are not yet fully understood. We investigated whether the composition and function of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) at 6 months of age could affect the natural course of AD up to 24 months in early childhood.
METHODS
Fecal samples from 132 infants were analyzed using pyrosequencing, including 84 healthy controls, 22 transient AD and 26 persistent AD subjects from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA) birth cohort. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by whole-metagenome sequencing. SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
RESULTS
Low levels of Streptococcus and high amounts of Akkermansia were evident in transient AD cases, and low Clostridium, Akkermansia and high Streptococcus were found in children with persistent AD. The relative abundance of Streptococcus positively correlated with scoring of AD (SCORAD) score, whereas that of Clostridium negatively correlated with SCORAD score. The persistent AD group showed decreased gut microbial functional genes related to oxidative phosphorylation compared with healthy controls. Butyrate and valerate levels were lower in transient AD infants compared with healthy and persistent AD infants.
CONCLUSIONS
Compositions, functions and metabolites of the early gut microbiome are related to natural courses of AD in infants.

Keyword

Dermatitis, atopic; gastrointestinal microbiome; metagenome; infant; metabolomics

MeSH Terms

Asthma
Butyrates
Child
Clostridium*
Cohort Studies
Dermatitis, Atopic*
Fatty Acids, Volatile
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Humans
Infant*
Metabolomics
Metagenome
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Parturition
Streptococcus*
Butyrates
Fatty Acids, Volatile
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