Nutr Res Pract.  2018 Oct;12(5):365-370. 10.4162/nrp.2018.12.5.365.

Antioxidative and antiproliferative activities of ethanol extracts from pigmented giant embryo rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Keunnunjami) before and after germination

  • 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Plus, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehakro, Bukgu, Daegu 41566, Korea.
  • 2School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.
  • 3College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.


Oxidative stress is a major cause of cancer. This study investigated the effects of the ethanol extracts from germinated and non-germinated Keunnunjami rice, a blackish-purple pigmented cultivar with giant embryo, on selected human cancer cell lines and on the antioxidant defense system of mice fed with a high-fat diet.
High fat-fed mice were orally administered with either distilled water (HF) or extracts (0.25%, w/w) from brown (B), germinated brown (GB), Keunnunjami (K), and germinated Keunnunjami (GK) rice.
In comparison with the brown rice extract, Keunnunjami extract showed higher anticancer effect against cervical and gastric cell lines but lower anticancer activity on liver and colon cancer cells. Mice from the HF group showed significantly higher lipid peroxidation and lower antioxidant enzyme activities than the control group. However, the oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet markedly decreased in B, GB, K, and GK groups as compared with the HF group.
Germination may be an effective method for improving the anticancer and antioxidative properties of Keunnunjami rice and extracts from germinated Keunnunjami rice may serve as a therapeutic agent against cervical and gastric cancers and oxidative damage.


Rice; germination; cancer; antioxidant; nutritional and metabolic diseases
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