J Cancer Prev.  2017 Jun;22(2):89-97. 10.15430/JCP.2017.22.2.89.

Antimutagenic and Antioxidant Activities of Thai Rice Brans

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. rawiwan.wong@cmu.ac.th
  • 2Department of Medical Technology, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Rice bran is the outer layer of the rice grain, and contains high amounts of bioactive phytochemicals. Here, we investigated and compared chemopreventive properties of purple and white rice bran extracts.
METHODS
Rice bran was extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. Chemical constituents in the extracts were analyzed by colorimetric assay and high performance liquid chromatography. The mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of the extracts were determined via the Salmonella mutation assay. The anticarcinogenic enzyme induction and antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined using Hepa1c1c7 cells and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, respectively.
RESULTS
The methanol extracts of rice bran contained high amounts of phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phytic acid, whereas large amounts of γ-oryzanol and vitamin E were presented in the dichloromethane extract. None of the extracts were mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. All rice bran extracts had strong antimutagenic effects against aflatoxin B1- and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline-induced mutagenesis. The inhibitory effect against 2-aminofluorene-induced mutagenesis was found in the dichloromethane extract, while only the methanol extract of purple rice bran exhibited antimutagenic effects against benzo(a)pyrene. None of the extracts induced quinone reductase activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Additionally, the greatest antioxidant capacity was found in the methanol extract of purple rice bran.
CONCLUSIONS
The methanol extract of purple rice bran containing high amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phytic acid showed the most effective antioxidant and antimutagenic activities by inhibiting mutagenic metabolizing enzymes and/or scavenging free radicals. These results demonstrate the nutritional and medical value of Thai rice for cancer prevention.

Keyword

Oryza sativa L.; Mutagenicity; Antimutagenicity; Antioxidant
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