Dement Neurocogn Disord.  2020 Mar;19(1):1-18. 10.12779/dnd.2020.19.1.1.

Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis Using Misfolding Proteins in Blood

Affiliations
  • 1Integrated Science Engineering Division, Yonsei University, Incheon, Korea. y.kim@yonsei.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Incheon, Korea.
  • 3Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Incheon, Korea.
  • 4Underwood Division, Yonsei University, Incheon, Korea.
  • 5Yonsei Frontier Lab, Yonsei University, Incheon, Korea.
  • 6Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, School of Pharmacy and Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine & Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by a long progressive phase of neuronal changes, including accumulation of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, before the onset of observable symptoms. Many efforts have been made to develop a blood-based diagnostic method for AD by incorporating Aβ and tau as plasma biomarkers. As blood tests have the advantages of being highly accessible and low cost, clinical implementation of AD blood tests would provide preventative screening to presymptomatic individuals, facilitating early identification of AD patients and, thus, treatment development in clinical research. However, the low concentration of AD biomarkers in the plasma has posed difficulties for accurate detection, hindering the development of a reliable blood test. In this review, we introduce three AD blood test technologies emerging in South Korea, which have distinctive methods of heightening detection sensitivity of specific plasma biomarkers. We discuss in detail the multimer detection system, the self-standard analysis of Aβ biomarkers quantified by interdigitated microelectrodes, and a biomarker ratio analysis comprising Aβ and tau.

Keyword

tau Proteins; Plasma; Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures; Biomarkers; Amyloid-beta Peptides; Alzheimer's Disease

MeSH Terms

Alzheimer Disease*
Biomarkers
Diagnosis*
Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures
Hematologic Tests
Humans
Korea
Mass Screening
Methods
Microelectrodes
Neurofibrillary Tangles
Neurons
Plasma
tau Proteins
Biomarkers
tau Proteins
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