Investig Clin Urol.  2020 Feb;61(Suppl 1):S8-S22. 10.4111/icu.2020.61.S1.S8.

Advances in urinary biomarker discovery in urological research

  • 1Departments of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
  • 2Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA.
  • 3Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea.
  • 4Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea.


A disease-specific biomarker (or biomarkers) is a characteristic reflecting a pathological condition in human body, which can be used as a diagnostic or prognostic tool for the clinical management. A urine-based biomarker(s) may provide a clinical value as attractive tools for clinicians to utilize in the clinical setting in particular to bladder diseases including bladder cancer and other bladder benign dysfunctions. Urine can be easily obtained by patients with no preparation or painful procedures required from patients' side. Currently advanced omics technologies and computational power identified potential omics-based novel biomarkers. An unbiased profiling based on transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenetics, metabolomics approaches et al. found that expression at RNA, protein, and metabolite levels are linked with specific bladder diseases and outcomes. In this review, we will discuss about the urine-based biomarkers reported by many investigators including us and how these biomarkers can be applied as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in clinical trials and patient care to promote bladder health. Furthermore, we will discuss how these promising biomarkers can be developed into a smart medical device and what we should be cautious about toward being used in real clinical setting.


Biomarkers; Cystitis, interstitial; Urinary bladder; Urinary bladder neoplasms; Urine
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