J Nutr Health.  2019 Feb;52(1):6-16. 10.4163/jnh.2019.52.1.6.

Effect of Sulgidduk containing pine needle juice on lipid metabolism in high fat-cholesterol diet induced dyslipidemic rats

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 51767, Korea. pej@kyungnam.ac.kr


Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Pine needles (Pinus densiflora seib et Zucc) are a traditional medicine used to treat dyslipidemia in clinical settings. This study examined the potential effects of sulgidduk, a Korean traditional rice cake containing pine needle juice to protect against dyslipidemia induced by a high-fat/sugidduk diet in a rat model.
Twenty one male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups: normal control (NC), Sulgidduk diet (SD), Sulgidduk diet containing pine needle juice (PSD). The blood lipid levels, production of lipid peroxide in the plasma and liver, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the liver and feces, antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma and erythrocytes were measured to assess the effects of PSD on dyslipidemia.
A high-fat/Sulgidduk diet induced dyslipidemia, which was characterized by significantly altered lipid profiles in the plasma and liver. The food intake was similar in the three groups, but weight gain and food efficiency ratio (FER) were reduced significantly in the PSD group compared to those in the SD group. The level of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TBARS in the plasma showed tendencies to decrease in the PSD group compared to those in the SD group. The levels of high-fat/Sulgidduk diet-induced sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) gene expression were reduced significantly in the PSD group. The supplementation of PSD reduced the hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels significantly, and enhanced the fecal excretion of triglyceride and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities compared to the SD group.
These results suggest that the addition of 0.4% pine needle juice to Sulgidduk may be an alternative snack to control dyslipidemia.


pine needle juice; sulgidduk; dyslipidemia; SREBP2; hepatic lipid profile

MeSH Terms

Cardiovascular Diseases
Gene Expression
Lipid Metabolism*
Medicine, Traditional
Models, Animal
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Risk Factors
Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
Weight Gain
Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances


  • Fig. 1 Effect of Sulgidduk containing pine needle juice on liver weight (A), liver triglyceride (B), liver total cholesterol (C), and fecal triglyceride (D) in rats fed a high fat diet. Each bar represents the mean ± SE. Bars with different superscript letters are significantly different at p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test. ND, normal diet; SD, Sulgidduk diet; PSD, Sulgidduk diet containing pine needle juice

  • Fig. 2 Effect of Sulgidduk containing pine needle juice on hepatic mRNA levels of SREBP2 genes in rats. Each bar represents the mean ± SE. Bars with different letters are significantly different at p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test. ND, normal diet; SD, Sulgidduk diet; PSD, Sulgidduk diet containing pine needle juice


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