J Bacteriol Virol.  2018 Dec;48(4):130-136. 10.4167/jbv.2018.48.4.130.

Gene Expression Profiles of Th1-type Chemokines in Whole Blood of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-Infected Cattle

  • 1Department of Microbiology, Research Institute of Life Science, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.
  • 2Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. yoohs@snu.ac.kr
  • 3National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju, Korea.
  • 4Institute of Green Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Korea.


Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, debilitating disease of ruminants including cows, and is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP is not only important in animal husbandry, but also in public health as it is associated with the onset of Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease in humans. JD, like other mycobacterial diseases including tuberculosis, is classified into different stages based on the progression of infection. In addition, development of diagnostic assays that can distinguish between subclinical and clinical stages of JD is essential to control mycobacterial infection by providing an effective treatment. For the development of novel diagnostic methods of JD, it is important to investigate and understand the mRNA expression of the various immune markers in individuals at each stage of infection. In this study, we measured the levels of Th1-type chemokines, CXCR3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 in MAP-infected bovine blood by interferon (IFN)-γ release assay (IGRA) using IFN-γ as an alternative biomarker. The association of mRNA expression patterns of these chemokines with the MAP infection stages was analyzed and IFN-γ, CCL5, and CXCL10 were found to be significantly upregulated compared to IFN-γ, the biomarker used in IGRA. Our results further indicate that IFN-γ levels significantly increased in individuals with MAP-specific antibody, and CCL5 and CXCL10 levels significantly increased in those with MAP DNA. In particular, CCL5 was significantly upregulated in individuals, in which both MAP-specific antibody and MAP DNA were detected, but the expression of CXCL10 was specifically elevated in MAP DNA-detected individuals without MAP-specific antibody.


Th-1 type chemokines; Paratuberculosis; Biomarkers; Cattle
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