Nutr Res Pract.  2019 Apr;13(2):115-125. 10.4162/nrp.2019.13.2.115.

Association between vitamin D intake and bone mineral density in Koreans aged ≥ 50 years: analysis of the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using a newly established vitamin D database

Affiliations
  • 1Food and Nutrition Major, Woosong University, Daejeon 34606, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 35408, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea. sunly@cnu.ac.kr

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
Vitamin D plays an important role in skeletal growth and maintenance and in the prevention of various diseases. We investigated the relationship between vitamin D intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adults aged ≥ 50 years using the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.
SUBJECTS/METHODS
This study was conducted in 1,808 subjects aged ≥ 50 years with BMD data in Korea. Dietary vitamin D levels were assessed by the 24-hour recall method. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We investigated general characteristics and the association between these characteristics, vitamin D status, and BMD.
RESULTS
Vitamin D intake was significantly lower in the osteoporosis group among women (P < 0.05). Among all subjects, the higher the serum 25(OH)D concentration, the higher the whole-body total BMD (WBT-BMD), femoral total hip BMD, and femoral neck BMD (P < 0.01). In the serum vitamin D-deficient group of both the total population and women, serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with WBT-BMD (P < 0.05). Among women with a calcium intake < 537.74 mg/day, BMD of those with a vitamin D intake > 2.51 µg/day (average intake of women) was higher than that of women with a vitamin D intake ≤ 2.51 µg/day (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Korean adults should increase their BMD by increasing serum 25(OH)D concentration. Furthermore, increasing vitamin D intake could improve BMD, especially in Korean women who consume less calcium than the estimated average requirement.

Keyword

Vitamin D intake; bone mineral density; osteoporosis; 25(OH)D

MeSH Terms

Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Bone Density*
Calcium
Female
Femur Neck
Hip
Humans
Korea*
Methods
Nutrition Surveys*
Osteoporosis
Vitamin D*
Vitamins*
Calcium
Vitamin D
Vitamins

Figure

  • Fig. 1 Differences in whole-body total bone mineral density (WBT-BMD) of subjects with a higher- and lower-than-average daily vitamin D intake by calcium intake quartiles. Average daily vitamin D intake: total subjects (3.47 µg/day), men (3.88 µg/day), women (2.51 µg/day). Calcium intake levels: total subjects [Q1: < 278 mg (n = 452), Q2: 278 ~ < 416 mg (n = 452), Q3: 416 ~ < 628 mg (n = 452), and Q4; ≥ 628 mg (n = 452)]. men [Q1: < 327 mg (n = 225), Q2: 327 ~ < 484 mg (n = 225), Q3: 484 ~ < 699 mg (n = 225), and Q4; ≥ 699 mg (n = 225)]. women [Q1: < 237 mg (n = 227), Q2: 237 ~ < 367 mg (n = 229), Q3: 367 ~ < 538 mg (n = 226), and Q4; ≥ 538 mg (n = 226)]. WBT-BMD values are presented as Mean ± SE. F-values were obtained based on the results of the complex samples general linear model. ***P < 0.001.


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