J Nutr Health.  2016 Dec;49(6):437-446. 10.4163/jnh.2016.49.6.437.

Vitamin D intake, serum 25OHD, and bone mineral density of Korean adults: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2011)

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea. sunly@cnu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 35408, Korea.


The purpose of this study was to estimate dietary intake of vitamin D and the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adults using the 2011 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Daily intake of vitamin D and ratio of subjects that consumed less vitamin D than adequate intake (AI) were estimated in 4,879 Korean adults. The relationship between daily intake of vitamin D and serum 25OHD and BMD were analyzed.
Average daily intakes of vitamin D were 3.84 ± 0.23 µg/day for men and 2.22 ± 0.11 µg/day for women. Approximately 72~97% of men and 80~99% of women consumed less than the AI of vitamin D for Koreans. Serum 25OHD concentration increased with age, and the ratios of serum vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) were 47.8~81.1% for men and 59.4~92.8% for women. Average intake of vitamin D was higher in subjects aged < 50 yr than in those ≥ 50 yr, but lower in serum 25OHD concentration. In subjects aged < 50 yr, serum 25OHD was higher in subjects that consumed 10 µg/day of vitamin D than in those that consumed less than 5 µg/day. In female subjects aged ≥ 50 yr, average intake of vitamin D was associated with higher bone mineral density.
It was found that dietary intake of vitamin D could increase serum 25OHD concentration in young adults and bone mineral density in old women. Therefore, nutrition policies for enriched foods with vitamin D and nutrition education to consume more vitamin D-rich foods are needed to ameliorate vitamin D status of the Korean population. Adequate intake for Korean population aged < 50 yr might be adjusted upwardly up to 10 µg/day.


dietary intake of vitamin D; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; bone mineral density; Korean adults

MeSH Terms

Bone Density*
Food, Fortified
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys*
Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin D*
Young Adult
Vitamin D
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