Osteoporos Sarcopenia.  2016 Sep;2(3):140-155. 10.1016/j.afos.2016.06.002.

The role of sex steroid hormones in the pathophysiology and treatment of sarcopenia

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University Guro Hospital, South Korea.
  • 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. jyhsyk@snu.ac.kr
  • 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, South Korea.

Abstract

Sex steroids influence the maintenance and growth of muscles. Decline in androgens, estrogens and progesterone by aging leads to the loss of muscular function and mass, sarcopenia. These steroid hormones can interact with different signaling pathways through their receptors. To date, sex steroid hormone receptors and their exact roles are not completely defined in skeletal and smooth muscles. Although numerous studies focused on the effects of sex steroid hormones on different types of cells, still many unexplained molecular mechanisms in both skeletal and smooth muscle cells remain to be investigated. In this paper, many different molecular mechanisms that are activated or inhibited by sex steroids and those that influence the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of skeletal and smooth muscle cells are reviewed. Also, the similarities of cellular and molecular pathways of androgens, estrogens and progesterone in both skeletal and smooth muscle cells are highlighted. The reviewed signaling pathways and participating molecules can be targeted in the future development of novel therapeutics.

Keyword

Sarcopenia; Androgen; Estrogen; Progesterone; Skeletal muscle; Smooth muscle

MeSH Terms

Aging
Androgens
Estrogens
Gonadal Steroid Hormones*
Muscle, Skeletal
Muscle, Smooth
Muscles
Myocytes, Smooth Muscle
Progesterone
Sarcopenia*
Steroids
Androgens
Estrogens
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Progesterone
Steroids
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