Lab Anim Res.  2016 Jun;32(2):79-86. 10.5625/lar.2016.32.2.79.

Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies

  • 1Pathology Research Center, Korea Institute of Toxicology (KIT), 141 Gajeongro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, Korea.
  • 2Pathology Research Center, Korea Institute of Toxicology (KIT), 30 Baekhak 1-gil, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk, Korea.
  • 3General Toxicology Research Center, Korea Institute of Toxicology (KIT), 30 Baekhak 1-gil, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk, Korea.


Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research.


Cynomolgus monkey; clinical chemistry; hematology; blood coagulation; urinalysis

MeSH Terms

Alkaline Phosphatase
Aspartate Aminotransferases
Blood Coagulation
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Chemistry, Clinical
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Lactic Acid
Macaca fascicularis*
Pathology, Clinical*
Reference Values*
Sex Characteristics
Alkaline Phosphatase
Aspartate Aminotransferases
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Lactic Acid


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