Korean J Nutr.  2006 Dec;39(8):786-794.

Ready-to-eat Cereal Consumption Enhances Milk and Calcium Intake in Korean Population from 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, Ansan College, Ansan 426-701, Korea. cechung@ansan.ac.kr


The purpose of this study was to establish an association between the consumption of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC), milk, and calcium within the context of the most current population dietary practice in Korea. Inadequate calcium intake among Korean children and adults is one of the important public health concern. Milk is one of the best calcium sources because of its bioavailability, and RTEC is one of the foods commonly consumed with milk. The most recent Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2001 dataset was used as the source of data for this research. Subjects excluding pregnant women, were categorized according to gender and age (1~5, 6~11, 12~19, 20~49, 50 + years) and then by consumption of RTEC and milk. SAS and SUDAAN were used for statistical analyses. Sample weighted means, standard errors, and population percentages were calculated, and multiple regression model with adjustment for covariates were used to determine the predictability of total daily calcium intake from inclusion of RTEC and milk compared to the meal without RTEC and milk. RTEC was consumed by 2.4% of Korean people. Average calcium intake was 17 times greater when RTEC was consumed with milk than when RTEC was consumed without milk. Respondents who consumed RTEC with milk had significantly higher mean daily calcium and other nutrient intakes than respondents who consumed neither. In the multiple regression analysis, milk consumption with or without RTEC predicted total daily calcium intake after adjusting for age, income, and alcohol consumption (p < 0.0001). The percentage of respondents below the estimated average requirement (EAR) level for calcium was lower for RTEC consumers than for RTEC non-consumers in all age-gender groups, especially significant differences were in children aged 1~5, boys and girls aged 12~19, men aged 20~49, and women older than 50 years of age. RTEC consumption was not associated with intake in excess of the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium. In conclusion, RTEC consumption was positively associated with both milk and calcium intakes in all age and gender groups in Korean population.


ready-to-eat cereal; national health and nutrition survey; SUDAAN (survey data analysis); EAR (estimated average requirement); UL (tolerable upper intake level)

MeSH Terms

Alcohol Drinking
Biological Availability
Edible Grain*
Nutrition Surveys*
Pregnant Women
Public Health
Surveys and Questionnaires
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