J Nutr Health.  2020 Oct;53(5):503-517. 10.4163/jnh.2020.53.5.503.

Yearly trend of milk intake in Korean children and adolescents and their nutritional status by the milk intake level using 2007–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea
  • 2Department of Sport Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
  • 3Department of Technology and Home Economics Education, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
This study examined the yearly trend of milk consumption and the nutritional status of subjects aged 6–18 years using the 2007–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.
Methods
Milk and dairy products were classified into plain milk, flavored milk, and dairy products (ice cream, milkshakes, cheese, and yogurt, etc.). This study compared the milk and dairy products intakes, some nutrients intakes and percent of dietary reference intakes for Koreans in the milk intake and non-milk intake groups.
Results
Plain milk intake decreased with year (male, p = 0.0199; female, p < 0.0001; elementary school, p = 0.0013; high school, p = 0.0061), whereas flavored milk and dairy products intake in these subjects increased with year. In all subjects, 49.9% of subjects did not drink milk at all. The intakes of energy, protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, and riboflavin in the milk intake group were significantly higher than those in the non-milk intake group, even after adjusting for covariates (p < 0.05). The odds ratio of the prevalence of nutritional deficiency in the non-milk intake group was 3.2 times higher than that of the milk intake group (p < 0.001), even after adjusting for covariates. The odds ratio for the prevalence of excess intake of the energy/fat was not significant with milk intake.
Conclusion
The prevalence of milk intake decreased every year in the subjects. Calcium deficiency and nutritional deficiency were very high in the non-milk intake group. Efforts should be made to improve the calcium status in children and adolescents by strengthening nutrition education about the importance of milk intake.

Keyword

milk; calcium; nutritional status; children; adolescents
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