Nutr Res Pract.  2008 Dec;2(4):211-217. 10.4162/nrp.2008.2.4.211.

Effect of onion and beet on plasma and liver lipids, platelet aggregation, and erythrocyte Na efflux in simvastatin treated hypercholesterolmic rats

  • 1Department of Foods & Nutrition, Cheju National University, 1 Ara-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju 690-756, Korea.
  • 2Division of life Sciences and Institute of Environment and Life Science, Hallym University, 1 Okchun-dong, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon 200-702, Korea.


This study was purposed to investigate the effect of onion or beet on plasma and liver lipids, erythrocyte Na efflux channels and platelet aggregation in simvastatin (SIM) treated hypercholesterolemic rats. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed 0.5% cholesterol based diets containing 2 mg/kg BW simvastatin or simvastatin with 5% onion or beet powder. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly increased in SIM group compared with the control (p<0.01), and the elevated plasma total cholesterol of SIM group was significantly decreased in SIM-onion and SIM-beet groups (p<0.05). HDL-cholesterol in SIM-beet group was significantly increased compared with other groups (p<0.05). Platelet aggregation in both the maximum and initial slope was significantly decreased in SIM group compared with SIM-onion group (p<0.05). Na-K ATPase was significantly decreased in SIM group compared with the control, SIM-onion and SIM-beet groups (p<0.05). Na passive leak was significantly increased in all groups treated with SIM compared with the control (p<0.05). The total Na efflux was decreased in SIM group and increased in SIM-onion group and the difference between these two groups was significant (p<0.05). There was no difference in intracellular Na among groups. In present study, simvastatin, a HMG CoA reductase inhibitor at dose of 2mg/kg BW/day rather increased plasma total cholesterol in rats, inferring that the action mechanism of simvastatin on cholesterol metabolism differ between rat and human. Onion and beet play favorable roles in cardiovascular system by restoring the reduced Na efflux through Na-K ATPase and Na-K cotransport in SIM treated rats.


Simvastatin; onion; beet; antioxidant; hypercholesterolemic rats

MeSH Terms

Adenosine Triphosphatases
Beta vulgaris
Blood Platelets
Cardiovascular System
Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases
Platelet Aggregation
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Adenosine Triphosphatases
Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases


  • Fig. 1 Microscopic appearance of liver tissue and aorta tissue (×400)

Cited by  1 articles

Effect of coenzyme Q10 and Ardisia japonica Blume on plasma and liver lipids, platelet aggregation, and erythrocyte Na efflux channels in simvastatin-treated guinea pigs
Min Sook Kang, Hun Mo Yang, Ja Young Kang, Sung Hee Ryou, Jung Sook Kang
Nutr Res Pract. 2012;6(5):414-420.    doi: 10.4162/nrp.2012.6.5.414.


1. Bełtowski J, Borkowska E, Wójcicka G, Marciniak A. Regulation of renal ouabain-resistant Na+-ATPase by leptin, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and cyclic nucleotides: implications for obesity-associated hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2007. 29:189–207.
2. Bełtowski J, Wójcicka G, Jamroz A. Differential effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors onplasma paraoxonase 1 activity in the rat. Pol J Pharmacol. 2002. 54:661–671.
3. Blum A, Merei M, Karem A, Blum N, Ben-Arzi S, Wirsansky I, Khazim K. Effects of tomatoes on the lipid profile. Clin Invest Med. 2006. 29:298–300.
4. Briggs WH, Folts JD, Osman HE, Goldman IL. Administration of raw onion inhibits platelet-mediated thrombosis in dogs. J Nutr. 2001. 131:2619–2622.
5. Broncel M, Balcerak M, Cieślak D, Duchnowicz P, Chojnowska-Jezierska J. Effect of fluvastatin extended release on the protein-lipid structure of erythrocyte membrane and C-reactive protein in patients with hyperlipidemia. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2007. 22:107–111.
6. Chen J, Nagasawa Y, Zhu BM, Ohmori M, Fujimura A, Hashmoto K. Pravastatin prevents arrhythmias induced by coronary artery ischemia/reperfusion in anesthetized normocholesterolemic rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003. 93:87–94.
7. Chew DP, Bhatt DL, Topol EJ. Oral glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: why don't they work? Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2001. 1:421–428.
8. Chou TC, Lin YF, Wu WC, Chu KM. Enhanced nitric oxide and cyclic GMP formation plays a role in the anti-platelet activity of simvastatin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008. 153:1281–1287.
9. Condo K, Vergara-Jimenez M, Krause BR, Newton RS, Fernandez ML. Hypocholesterolemic action of atorvastatin are associated with alterations on hepatic cholesterol metabolism and lipoprotein composition in guinea pig. J Lipid Res. 1996. 37:2372–2382.
10. Fernandez ML. Guinea pigs as models for cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. J Nutr. 2001. 131:10–20.
11. Folch J, Lee M, Sloane Stanley GH. A simple method for the isolation and purification or total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 1957. 226:497–509.
12. Fontaine D, Fontaine J, Dupont I, Dessy C, Carpentier Y, Berkenboom G. Chronic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibition and endothelial function of the normocholesterolemic rat: comparison with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2002. 40:172–180.
13. Hara H, Haga S, Aoyama Y, Kiriyama S. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Suppress Cholesterol Synthesis in Rat Liver and Intestine. J Nutr. 1999. 129:942–948.
14. Hara H, Haga S, Kasai T, Kiriyama S. Fermentation Products of Sugar-Beet Fiber by Cecal Bacteria Lower Plasma Cholesterol Concentration in Rats. J Nutr. 1998. 128:688–693.
15. Hubbard GP, Wolffram S, de Vos R, Bovy A, Gibbins JM, Lovegrove JA. Ingestion of onion soup high in quercetin inhibits platelet aggregation and essential components of the collagen-stimulated platelet activation pathway in man: a pilot study. Br J Nutr. 2006. 96:482–488.
16. Kang JS, Cregor MD, Smith JB. Effect of calcium on blood pressure, platelet aggregation and erythrocyte sodium transport in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. J Hypertens. 1990. 8:245–250.
17. Kanner J, Harel S, Granit R. Betalains-a new class of dietary cationized antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem. 2001. 49:5178–5185.
18. King DE, Mainous AG, Player A, Geesey ME. Use of statins and blood pressure. Am J hypertens. 2007. 20:937–941.
19. Kumari K, Augusti KT. Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007. 109:367–371.
20. Lambo-Fodje AM, Oste R, Nyman ME. Short-chain fatty acid formation in the hindgut of rats fed native and fermented oat fibre concentrates. Br J Nutr. 2006. 96:47–55.
21. Lutjohann D, Stroic M, Bertsch T, Lindenthal B, Andersson U, Fassbender K. High doses of simvastatin, pravastatin and cholesterol reduce brain cholesterol synthesis in guinea pig. Steroids. 2004. 69:431–438.
22. Mabuchi H, Higashikata T, Kawashiri M, Inazu A, Koizumi J, Kobayashi J. Reduction of serum ubiquinol-10 and ubiquinone-10 levels by atorvastatin in hypercholesterolemic patients. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2005. 12:111–119.
23. Nakamura H. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among hypercholesterolemic Japanese with a low dose of pravastatin. Atheroscler Suppl. 2007. 8:13–17.
24. Nanetti L, Vignini A, Raffaelli F, Silvestrini M, Provinciali L, Mazzanti L. Platelet membrane fluidity and Na+/K+ ATPase activity in acute stroke. Brain Res. 2008. 1205:21–26.
25. Pignatelli P, Di Santo S, Buchetti B, Sanguigni V, Brunelli A, Violi F. Polyphenols enhance platelet nitric oxide by inhibiting protein kinase C-dependent NADPH oxidase activation: effect on platelet recruitment. FASEB J. 2006. 20:1082–1089.
26. Rosamond W. Heart disease and stroke statistics: A report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee. Circulation. 2008. 117:e25–e146.
27. Susic D, Varagic J, Ahn J, Slama M, Frohlich ED. Beneficial pleiotropic vascular effects of rosuvastatin in two hypertensive models. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003. 42:1091–1097.
28. Suzuki Y, Lu Q, Xu DZ, Szabó C, Haskó G, Deitch EA. Na+, K+-ATPase activity is inhibited in cultured intestinal epithelial cells by endotoxin or nitric oxide. Int J Mol Med. 2005. 15:871–877.
29. Tesoriere L, Allegra M, Butera D, Livrea MA. Absorption, excretion, and distribution of dietary antioxidant betalains in LDLs: potential health effects of betalains in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004. 80:941–945.
30. Varela M, Garvin JL. Acute and chronic regulation of thick ascending limb endothelial nitric oxide synthase by statins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004. 15:269–275.
31. West KL, Fernandez ML. Guinea pigs as models to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of drugs. Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2004. 22:55–70.
32. Yamamoto Y, Aoyama S, Hamaguchi N, Rhi GS. Antioxidative and antihypertensive effects of Welsh onion on rats fed with a high-fat high-sucrose diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005. 69:1311–1317.
Full Text Links
  • NRP
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: