Cancer Res Treat.  2015 Apr;47(2):306-312. 10.4143/crt.2014.015.

CCL2 Chemokine as a Potential Biomarker for Prostate Cancer: A Pilot Study

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. igor.tsaur@kgu.de
  • 2Department of Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
  • 3Department of Surgery I, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Julius-Maximilians-University, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Prostate specific antigen is not reliable in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa), making the identification of novel, precise diagnostic biomarkers important. Since chemokines are associated with more aggressive disease and poor prognosis in diverse malignancies, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic relevance of chemokines in PCa.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Preoperative and early postoperative serum samples were obtained from 39 consecutive PCa patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Serum from 15 healthy volunteers served as controls. Concentrations of CXCL12, CXCL13, CX3CL1, CCL2, CCL5, and CCL20 were measured in serum by Luminex. The expression activity of CXCR3, CXCR4, CXCR5, CXCR7, CXCL12, CXCL13, CX3CR1, CXCL1, CCR2, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CCL2, and CCL5 mRNA was assessed in tumor and adjacent normal tissue of prostatectomy specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The associations of these chemokines with clinical and histological parameters were tested.
RESULTS
The gene expression activity of CCL2 and CCR6 was significantly higher in tumor tissue compared to adjacent normal tissue. CCL2 was also significantly higher in the blood samples of PCa patients, compared to controls. CCL5, CCL20, and CX3CL1 were lower in patient serum, compared to controls. CCR2 tissue mRNA was negatively correlated with the Gleason score and grading.
CONCLUSION
Chemokines are significantly modified during tumorigenesis of PCa, and CCL2 is a promising diagnostic biomarker.

Keyword

Prostatic neoplasms; Diagnosis; Biological markers; Chemokines; Chemokine CCL2
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