Infect Chemother.  2020 Dec;52(4):600-610. 10.3947/ic.2020.52.4.600.

Infections in Lung Transplant Recipients during and after Prophylaxis

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 6Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Background
The timeline of infections after lung transplantation has been changed with the introduction of new immunosuppressants and prophylaxis strategies. The study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diseases after lung transplantation in the current era.
Materials and Methods
All patients who underwent lung or heart–lung transplantation at our institution between October 29, 2008 and April 3, 2019 were enrolled. We retrospectively reviewed the patients' medical records till April 2, 2020.
Results
In total, 100 consecutive lung transplant recipients were enrolled. The median follow-up period was 28 months after lung transplantation. A total of 127 post–lung transplantation bacterial infections occurred. Catheter-related bloodstream infection (25/84, 29.8%) was the most common within 6 months and pneumonia (23/43, 53.5%) was the most common after 6 months. Most episodes (35/40, 87.5%) of respiratory viral infections occurred after 6 months, mainly as upper respiratory infections. The remaining episodes (5/40, 12.5%) mostly manifested as lower respiratory tract infections. Seventy cytomegalovirus infections observed in 43 patients were divided into 23 episodes occurring before and 47 episodes occurring after discontinuing prophylaxis. Of 10 episodes of cytomegalovirus disease, four occurred during prophylaxis and six occurred after prophylaxis. Of 23 episodes of post–lung transplantation fungal infection, 7 were aspergillosis and all occurred after the discontinuation of prophylaxis.
Conclusion
Lung transplant recipients experienced a high burden of infection even after 6 months, especially after the end of the prophylaxis period. Therefore, these patients should be continued to be monitored long-term for infectious disease.

Keyword

Infection; Lung transplantation; Prophylaxis
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