Endocrinol Metab.  2020 Mar;35(1):97-105. 10.3803/EnM.2020.35.1.97.

Vitamin D Deficiency at Mid-Pregnancy Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Postpartum Glucose Intolerance in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea. imdrksk@cha.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at mid-pregnancy and postpartum glucose intolerance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
We enrolled 348 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM from August 2012 to October 2016. We measured serum 25(OH)D levels at mid-pregnancy and carried out a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 6 to 12 weeks after delivery. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D <20 ng/mL.
The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 76.7% (n=267). Women with vitamin D deficiency had a higher prevalence of postpartum glucose intolerance than did those without vitamin D deficiency (48.7% vs. 32.1%, P=0.011). Serum 25(OH)D level was negatively correlated with hemoglobin A1c at antepartum and postpartum period (antepartum: r=−0.186, P=0.001; postpartum: r=−0.129, P=0.047). Homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level only postpartum (r=0.138, P=0.035). The risk of postpartum glucose intolerance was 2.00 times (95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 3.55) higher in women with vitamin D deficiency than in those without vitamin D deficiency (P=0.018).
In women with GDM, vitamin D deficiency at mid-pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of postpartum glucose intolerance.


Diabetes, gestational; Glucose intolerance; Postpartum period; Vitamin D deficiency

MeSH Terms

Diabetes, Gestational*
Glucose Intolerance*
Glucose Tolerance Test
Postpartum Period*
Pregnant Women
Vitamin D Deficiency*
Vitamin D*
Vitamin D


  • Fig. 1 Prevalence of postpartum glucose intolerance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus according to the status of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. aP<0.05.

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