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Mitochondrial Quality Control in the Heart: New Drug Targets for Cardiovascular Disease

Oh CM, Ryu D, Cho S, Jang Y

Despite considerable efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has become the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac mitochondria are crucial cell organelles responsible for creating energy-rich ATP...
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Oxidative Stress Modulates the Expression Pattern of Peroxiredoxin-6 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Asthmatic Patients and Bronchial Epithelial Cells

Shim HJ, Park SY, Kwon HS, Song WJ, Kim TB, Moon KA, Choi JP, Kim SJ, Cho YS

PURPOSE: Reduction-oxidation reaction homeostasis is vital for regulating inflammatory conditions and its dysregulation may affect the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. Peroxiredoxin-6, an important intracellular anti-oxidant...
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Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Airways: Their Functions and Regulators

Orimo K, Saito H, Matsumoto , Morita H

Since the airways are constantly exposed to various pathogens and foreign antigens, various kinds of cells in the airways—including structural cells and immune cells—interact to form a precise defense system...
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Enzymes involved in folate metabolism and its implication for cancer treatment

Kim SE

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Folate plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Intracellular folate homeostasis is maintained by the enzymes folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS) and γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH). FPGS adds glutamate residues...
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Vitamin D Deficiency at Mid-Pregnancy Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Postpartum Glucose Intolerance in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Kim KS, Park SW, Cho YW, Kim SK

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at mid-pregnancy and postpartum glucose intolerance in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We enrolled 348 pregnant women diagnosed with...
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Current Understanding of Mineral and Bone Disorders of Chronic Kidney Disease and the Scientific Grounds on the Use of Exogenous Parathyroid Hormone in Its Management

Pazianas M, Miller PD

Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) disturbs mineral homeostasis leading to mineral and bone disorders (MBD). Serum calcium and phosphate (Pi) remain normal until the late stages of CKD at the expense...
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Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Immune-Related Adverse Events of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Choi J, Lee SY

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been changing the paradigm of cancer treatment. However, immune-related adverse effects (irAEs) have also increased with the exponential increase in the use of ICIs. ICIs...
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Heterogeneity of Human γδ T Cells and Their Role in Cancer Immunity

Lee HW, Chung YS, Kim TJ

The γδ T cells are unconventional lymphocytes that function in both innate and adaptive immune responses against various intracellular and infectious stresses. The γδ T cells can be exploited as...
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Regulatory T Cells in Tumor Microenvironment and Approach for Anticancer Immunotherapy

Kim JH, Kim BS, Lee SK

Tregs have a role in immunological tolerance and immune homeostasis by suppressing immune reactions, and its therapeutic potential is critical in autoimmune diseases and cancers. There have been multiple studies...
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Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Plasticity

Nishida M, Tanaka T, Mangmool S, Nishiyama , Nishimura

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a pivotal role in the stability and tonic regulation of vascular homeostasis. VSMCs can switch back and forth between highly proliferative (synthetic) and fully...
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Quantifications of Lipid Kinetics In Vivo Using Stable Isotope Tracer Methodology

Kim IY, Park S, Jang J, Wolfe RR

Like other bodily materials, lipids such as plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterols, and free fatty acids are in a dynamic state of constant turnover (i.e., synthesis, breakdown, oxidation, and/or conversion to other...
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Intelectin-1 and Endocrinological Parameters in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Effect of Insulin Resistance

Al-Fartosy AJM, Awad NA, Mohammed A

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effect of insulin resistance (IR) on serum Intelectin-1 and endocrinological hormones levels in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
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Cardiorenal syndrome

Kim MG

To maintain homeostasis of the cardiovascular system, the heart and kidney act bidirectionally. Therefore, acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ can cause dysfunction in the other. This phenomenon is...
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Prebiotics in the Infant Microbiome: The Past, Present, and Future

Miqdady M, Al Mistarihi J, Azaz A, Rawat D

The latest definition of a prebiotic is “a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit”; it now includes non-food elements and is applicable to extra-intestinal...
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Autophagy in neutrophils

Shrestha S, Lee JM, Hong CW

Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation and energy-recycling mechanism that contributes to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Extensive researches over the past decades have defined the role of autophagy...
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Arginine methylation as a key post-translational modification in skeletal muscle homeostasis: a review

Kim H, Kang JS, Jeong HJ

Arginine methylation mediated by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) has emerged as a key post-translational modification of histone or nonhistone substrates. It involves or controls signaling pathways or gene expression implicated...
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Implication of Porphyromonas gingivalis in colitis and homeostasis of intestinal epithelium

Seo Y, Oh SJ, Ahn JS, Shin YY, Yang JW, Kim HS

Emerging evidences have reported that periodontitis can be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of various systemic diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), one of the crucial pathogens in chronic periodontitis, has...
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Role of Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications: Novel Insights and Potential Intervention Strategies

Woldeamlak B, Yirdaw K, Biadgo B

Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become one of the fastest growing public health problems worldwide. The disease is believed to involve a complex process involving genetic susceptibility and environmental factors....
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Lipid accumulation product is a predictor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in childhood obesity

Özcabı B, Demirhan S, Akyol M, Öztürkmen Akay H, Güven A

BACKGROUND: Lipid accumulation product (LAP) is associated with the presence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults. PURPOSE: Here we evaluated the ability of LAP to predict NAFLD...
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Autophagy, Cellular Aging and Age-related Human Diseases

Cheon SY, Kim H, Rubinsztein DC, Lee JE

Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved degradation system that engulfs intracytoplasmic contents, including aggregated proteins and organelles, which is crucial for cellular homeostasis. During aging, cellular factors suggested as the cause of...
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