J Korean Diabetes.  2015 Sep;16(3):174-181. 10.4093/jkd.2015.16.3.174.

Diagnosis and Medical Management of Gestational Diabetes

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Cheil General Hospital and Women's Healthcare Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. hoonie.kim@cgh.co.kr

Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical complications during pregnancy. Both mother and baby are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, as well as long-term metabolic effects such as diabetes. Diagnosing and treating GDM can reduce perinatal complications. The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) has proposed a new screening strategy for overt diabetes at the first prenatal visit and diagnostic criteria for GDM based on perinatal outcomes. However, controversies still exist and there is no international consensus about these issues. Regarding the management of GDM, individualized medical nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of treatment. If maternal glucose levels and/or fetal growth patterns show a sufficiently high risk of perinatal complications, insulin can be used to intensify treatment, and regimens should be tailored to meet glycemic targets. Postpartum screening for early detection of glucose intolerance and implementation of diabetes prevention programs are important for women with a history of GDM.

Keyword

Diagnosis; Gestational diabetes mellitus; Management; Screening
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