Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab.  2019 Dec;24(4):220-225. 10.6065/apem.2019.24.4.220.

Perirenal and epicardial fat and their association with carotid intima-media thickness in children

Affiliations
  • 1Pediatric Endocrinology, Girona Institute for Biomedical Research, Girona, Spain. alopezbermejo@idibgi.org
  • 2Pediatrics, Dr. Josep Trueta Hospital, Girona, Spain.
  • 3Department of Physical Therapy, EUSES University School, University of Girona, Salt, Spain.
  • 4Pediatrics, Clinica Bofill, Girona, Spain.
  • 5Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia, Girona, Spain.
  • 6Maternal & Fetal Metabolic Research, Girona Institute for Biomedical Research, Salt, Spain.

Abstract

Recent data suggest that subclinical atherosclerosis is more related to visceral adipose tissue distribution than to overall fat mass. Both perirenal fat and epicardial fat are visceral fat depots surrounding the kidneys and the myocardium, respectively, which can be easily assessed by ultrasound. Their clinical relevance in children is largely unknown. This review describes studies relating perirenal and epicardial fat to cardiovascular disease or carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), a well-established surrogate for subclinical atherosclerosis, and discusses this in context with our own data from children. In adults, both perirenal and epicardial fat are useful biological markers of visceral obesity. The former has been related to hypertension in overweight subjects and with atherosclerosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. The latter was associated with several metabolic syndrome components and with calcification of the carotid artery. In healthy prepubertal children, both epicardial and perirenal fat thickness, rather than total body fat mass, were related to cIMT. Ultrasonography measures of perirenal and epicardial fat are related to atherosclerosis in adults and may be convenient tools for the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in children.

Keyword

Body fat distribution; Intra-abdominal fat; Cardiovascular diseases; Carotid intima-media thickness; Child

MeSH Terms

Adipose Tissue
Adult
Atherosclerosis
Biomarkers
Body Fat Distribution
Cardiovascular Diseases
Carotid Arteries
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness*
Child*
HIV
Humans
Hypertension
Intra-Abdominal Fat
Kidney
Myocardium
Obesity, Abdominal
Overweight
Ultrasonography
Biomarkers
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