Diabetes Metab J.  2019 Oct;43(5):615-626. 10.4093/dmj.2018.0128.

Association between Change in Alcohol Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome: Analysis from the Health Examinees Study

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University Graduate School, Seoul, Korea. fmpark1@snu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3JW Lee Center for Global Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 5Department of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
The association between change in alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome is unclear.
METHODS
This retrospective cohort consisted of 41,368 males and females from the Health Examinees-GEM study. Participants were divided into non-drinkers (0.0 g/day), light drinkers (male: 0.1 to 19.9 g/day; female: 0.1 to 9.9 g/day), moderate drinkers (male: 20.0 to 39.9 g/day; female: 10.0 to 19.9 g/day), and heavy drinkers (male: ≥40.0 g/day; female: ≥20.0 g/day) for each of the initial and follow-up health examinations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing metabolic syndrome according to the change in alcohol consumption between the initial and follow-up health examinations. Adjusted mean values for the change in waist circumference, fasting serum glucose (FSG), blood pressure, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were determined according to the change in alcohol consumption by linear regression analysis.
RESULTS
Compared to persistent light drinkers, those who increased alcohol intake to heavy levels had elevated risk of metabolic syndrome (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.92). In contrast, heavy drinkers who became light drinkers had reduced risk of metabolic syndrome (aOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.84) compared to persistent heavy drinkers. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with elevated adjusted mean values for waist circumference, FSG, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels (all P<0.05). Reduction in alcohol intake was associated with decreased waist circumference, FSG, blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels among initial heavy drinkers (all P<0.05).
CONCLUSION
Heavy drinkers who reduce alcohol consumption could benefit from reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

Keyword

Alcohol drinking; Dyslipidemias; Hypertension; Metabolic syndrome; Obesity

MeSH Terms

Alcohol Drinking*
Blood Glucose
Blood Pressure
Cholesterol, HDL
Cohort Studies
Dyslipidemias
Fasting
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypertension
Linear Models
Logistic Models
Male
Obesity
Odds Ratio
Retrospective Studies
Triglycerides
Waist Circumference
Cholesterol, HDL
Triglycerides
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