J Vet Sci.  2018 Nov;19(6):798-807. 10.4142/jvs.2018.19.6.798.

Benefits of procyanidins on gut microbiota in Bama minipigs and implications in replacing antibiotics

  • 1Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. lcui@sjtu.edu.cn


Several studies have reported the effect of absorption of procyanidins and their contribution to the small intestine. However, differences between dietary interventions of procyanidins and interventions via antibiotic feeding in pigs are rarely reported. Following 16S rRNA gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing, we observed that both procyanidin administration for 2 months (procyanidin-1 group) and continuous antibiotic feeding for 1 month followed by procyanidin for 1 month (procyanidin-2 group) increased the number of operational taxonomic units, as well as the Chao 1 and ACE indices, compared to those in pigs undergoing antibiotic administration for 2 months (antibiotic group). The genera Fibrobacter and Spirochaete were more abundant in the antibiotic group than in the procyanidin-1 and procyanidin-2 groups. Principal component analysis revealed clear separations among the three groups. Additionally, using the online Molecular Ecological Network Analyses pipeline, three co-occurrence networks were constructed; Lactobacillus was in a co-occurrence relationship with Trichococcus and Desulfovibrio and a co-exclusion relationship with Bacillus and Spharerochaeta. Furthermore, metabolic function analysis by phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states demonstrated modulation of pathways involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, energy, and nucleotides. These data suggest that procyanidin influences the gut microbiota and the intestinal metabolic function to produce beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis.


Illumina MiSeq; gastrointestinal microbiome; metabolic function; pigs; procyanidin
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