J Korean Med Sci.  2018 Nov;33(47):e303. 10.3346/jkms.2018.33.e303.

CDC6 mRNA Expression Is Associated with the Aggressiveness of Prostate Cancer

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University, College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea. wjkim@chungbuk.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical College, Yanbian University, Yanji, China.
  • 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, Korea.
  • 4Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) is an essential regulator of DNA replication and plays important roles in the activation and maintenance of the checkpoint mechanisms in the cell cycle. CDC6 has been associated with oncogenic activities in human cancers; however, the clinical significance of CDC6 in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether the CDC6 mRNA expression level is a diagnostic and prognostic marker in PCa.
METHODS
The study subjects included 121 PCa patients and 66 age-matched benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. CDC6 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical (IH) staining, and then compared according to the clinicopathological characteristics of PCa.
RESULTS
CDC6 mRNA expression was significantly higher in PCa tissues than in BPH control tissues (P = 0.005). In addition, CDC6 expression was significantly higher in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (> 20 ng/mL), a high Gleason score, and advanced stage than in those with low PSA levels, a low Gleason score, and earlier stage, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high expression of CDC6 was significantly associated with advanced stage (≥ T3b) (odds ratio [OR], 3.005; confidence interval [CI], 1.212-7.450; P = 0.018) and metastasis (OR, 4.192; CI, 1.079-16.286; P = 0.038). Intense IH staining for CDC6 was significantly associated with a high Gleason score and advanced tumor stage including lymph node metastasis stage (linear-by-linear association, P = 0.044 and P = 0.003, respectively).
CONCLUSION
CDC6 expression is associated with aggressive clinicopathological characteristics in PCa. CDC6 may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker in PCa patients.

Keyword

Prostatic Neoplasms; Gene Expression; Immunohistochemical Staining; CDC6
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