J Korean Acad Oral Health.  2017 Jun;41(2):122-128. 10.11149/jkaoh.2017.41.2.122.

Gender-related difference in the relationship between smoking status and periodontal diseases: the propensity score matching approach

  • 1BK21 PLUS Program in Embodiment: Health-Society Interaction, Department of Public Health Sciences, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. hykim_dental@hotmail.com
  • 2Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.


OBJECTIVES: The purpose
of this study was to investigate the gender-related difference in the relationship between smoking status and periodontal diseases using data from the 2014 National Health and Nutrition Survey.
A total of 4,332 subjects were included in the study. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to control selection bias, and factors affecting the smoking status were used as covariates in PSM. The chi-squared and t tests were used for bivariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates (age, education level, household income, monthly drinking, stress, excises, dental visits, frequency of daily tooth brushing, and dental product usage).
After adjusting for all covariates, the smoking status was associated with periodontal diseases. Among the male smoking group showed a 2.1-times higher probability of periodontal diseases than the non-smoking group (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.66-2.68). Among the female smoking group showed a 2.3-times higher probability of periodontal disease than the non-smoking group (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.12-4.89).
Smoking was significantly associated with periodontitis in Korean male and even female although prevalence of smoking in women was very low. This result could suggest that smoking cessation program should be educated for men and women as well in order to prevent from periodontitis in Korea.


Periodontal diseases; Propensity score matching; Smoking
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