Exp Neurobiol.  2016 Dec;25(6):318-327. 10.5607/en.2016.25.6.318.

Chronic Nonmodulated Microwave Radiations in Mice Produce Anxiety-like and Depression-like Behaviours and Calcium- and NO-related Biochemical Changes in the Brain

  • 1Molecular Neuroendocrinology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India. cmcbhu@yahoo.com
  • 2Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India.


The present study was aimed to investigate behavioural and biochemical effects of chronic exposure of amplitude modulated and non-modulated microwave radiation on laboratory mice. Chronic microwave exposures were executed with 2.45 GHz of either modulated (power density, 0.029 mW/cm²; specific absorption rate, 0.019 W/Kg with sinusoidal modulation of 400 Hz) or nonmodulated continuous sinusoidal wave (power density, 0.033 mW/cm²; specific absorption rate, 0.023 W/Kg) for 2 hrs daily for 1 month. Mice subjected to non-modulated microwave exposure had significantly increased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased intracellular calcium and nitric oxide levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and also had increased glucose and corticosterone levels in blood compared to control mice. These non-modulated microwave-exposed mice exhibited anxiety-like and depression-like behaviours. In contrast, mice exposed to modulated microwave for the same period did not show such changes in concomitant biochemical and behavioural analyses. These results suggest that chronic non-modulated microwave, but not modulated microwave, radiation may cause anxiety-like and depression-like behaviours and calcium- and NO-related biochemical changes in the brain.


modulated microwave; nonmodulated microwave; anxiety; depression
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