J Korean Diet Assoc.  2016 Aug;22(3):151-162. 10.14373/JKDA.2016.22.3.151.

Relationship between Kimchi and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007~2012

  • 1Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea. ypark@khu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Food & Nutrition, Dankook University, Yongin 16890, Korea.
  • 3World Institute of Kimchi, Gwangju 61755, Korea.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Kimchi intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults (over 19 years old), using data from the Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007~2012. A total of 30,630 participants were analyzed in this study. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the NCEP ATP III criteria standards. Out of the 30,630 participants, 8,230 (23.45%) had meatabolic syndrome. When the subjects were grouped by their Kimchi intake, those who consumed a sufficient amount (36.0~82.125 g) showed a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.001). However, multiple logistic regression analysis results after adjusting for sex and age, exercise status, smoking status, drinking status, energy intake, income level, occupation, area, frequency of eating-out, showed that the Kimchi intake did not significantly affect the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome. High sodium contents of Kimchi was the major cause of various cardiovascular diseases, and was associated with the hypertension risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. However, in this study, the Kimchi intake, even after adjusting sodium intake, did not have negative influence on the development of metabolic syndrome.


Kimchi; metabolic syndrome; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
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