J Korean Soc Coloproctol.  2004 Oct;20(5):277-282.

The Outcome of Preoperative Chemoradiation to Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Surgery, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea. gsabk@ns.kosinmed.or.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE: Tumor downstaging after preoperative chemoradiation has been associated with an intent to improve anal sphincter preservation, resectability, local control, and possibly survival in locally advanced rectal cancer. We performed this study to evaluate the outcome of preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 82 patients who had been treated by using preoperative chemoradiation combined with surgery for adenocarcinoma of the rectum between January, 1995, and December, 2002. All patients had fixed or locally advanced lesions, which had been detected by using digital rectal examination. No distant metastasis was proven before preoperative chemoradiation. All of the patients received the full scheduled dose of radiation (range, 3,000~5,400 cGy). Concurrent intravenous chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (450 mg/m2/day) and leucovorin (45 mg/day) was administered continuously on days 1~5 and 29~33. The mean interval between chemoradiation and surgery was 5.6 weeks (2.7~9.6 weeks). The survival rate was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. We compared the survival of locally advanced rectal cancers treated by using preoperative chemoradiation with surgery with that of 444 patients with resectable rectal cancers treated by using curative surgery alone during same period.
RESULTS
A curative resection could be performed on 64 of the 82 patients (78.2%). A sphincter-preserving surgery was performed on 42 patients (51.2%). A pathologic complete response (pCR) occurred in 6 patients (7.3%). The 5-year survival rates of patients with a pCR was 66.7%. In the comparison of the 5-year survival rates between patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated by using preoperative chemoradiation with curative surgery and patients with rectal cancer treated by using curative surgery alone, those of stage I, stage II, and stage III cancers were 100% vs. 89.5%, 86.9% vs. 86.3%, and 52.9% vs. 63.3%, respectively (P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
The survival rates for patients with locally advanced rectal cancers, which are expected to be unresectable or non-curative, treated by using preoperative chemoradiation with surgery were similar to those for patients with resectable rectal cancers treated by using curative surgery alone. We think that preoperative chemoradiation with surgery improves the survival of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. J Korean Soc Coloproctol 2004;20:277-282

Keyword

Preoperative chemoradiation; Rectal cancer; Survival rate

MeSH Terms

Adenocarcinoma
Anal Canal
Digital Rectal Examination
Drug Therapy
Fluorouracil
Humans
Leucovorin
Neoplasm Metastasis
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rectal Neoplasms*
Rectum
Retrospective Studies
Survival Rate
Fluorouracil
Leucovorin
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