Nutr Res Pract.  2014 Jun;8(3):336-341.

Cheese consumption in relation to cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian adults- IHHP Study

Affiliations
  • 1Cardiac Rehabilitation Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, 8187698191, Iran.
  • 2Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia.
  • 3Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8187698191, Iran. nsarrafzadegan@gmail.com
  • 4Physiology research center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8187698191, Iran.
  • 5Mental health department, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8187698191, Iran.
  • 6Medical Plants Research Centre, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord 8136893669, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
/OBJECTIVE: It is expected that dairy products such as cheeses, which are the main source of cholesterol and saturated fat, may lead to the development or increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases; however, the results of different studies are inconsistent. This study was conducted to assess the association between cheese consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian adult population.
SUBJECTS/METHODS
Information from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) was used for this cross-sectional study with a total of 1,752 participants (782 men and 970 women). Weight, height, waist and hip circumference measurement, as well as fasting blood samples were gathered and biochemical assessments were done. To evaluate the dietary intakes of participants a validated food frequency questionnaire, consists of 49 items, was completed by expert technicians. Consumption of cheese was classified as less than 7 times per week and 7-14 times per week.
RESULTS
Higher consumption of cheese was associated with higher C-Reactive Protein (CRP), apolipoprotein A and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level but not with fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein B. Higher consumption of cheese was positively associated with consumption of liquid and solid oil, grain, pulses, fruit, vegetable, meat and dairy, and negatively associated with Global Dietary Index. After control for other potential confounders the association between cheese intake and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.81; 96%CI: 0.71-0.94), low HDL-C level (OR: 0.87; 96%CI: 0.79-0.96) and dyslipidemia (OR: 0.88; 96%CI: 0.79-0.98) became negatively significant.
CONCLUSION
This study found an inverse association between the frequency of cheese intake and cardiovascular risk factors; however, further prospective studies are required to confirm the present results and to illustrate its mechanisms.

Keyword

Cheese consumption; cardiovascular risk factors; food frequency questionnaire

MeSH Terms

Adult
Apolipoproteins
Blood Glucose
C-Reactive Protein
Edible Grain
Cheese*
Cholesterol
Cholesterol, HDL
Cholesterol, LDL
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dairy Products
Dyslipidemias
Fasting
Fruit
Heart
Hip
Humans
Male
Meat
Metabolic Diseases
Surveys and Questionnaires
Risk Factors*
Triglycerides
Vegetables
Apolipoproteins
Blood Glucose
C-Reactive Protein
Cholesterol
Cholesterol, HDL
Cholesterol, LDL
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