Pediatr Infect Vaccine.  2016 Apr;23(1):31-39. 10.14776/piv.2016.23.1.31.

Clinical Characteristics, Prognostic Factors and Influence of Prophylaxis in Children with Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. entier@amc.seoul.kr
  • 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and to evaluate the influence of PCP prophylaxis in pediatric patients.
METHODS
From January 2002 to April 2015, patients aged <18 years with a diagnosis of confirmed PCP at our institute were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared according to the groups with or without PCP prophylaxis. Risk factors associated with PCP-related death were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
During study period, a total of 24 patients were diagnosed with PCP by immunofluorescence assay and/or PCR. The median age of the patients was 5 years (range, 3 months-18 years) and 23 (96%) had immunocompromised conditions including hematologic disorders with or without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=15), solid organ transplantation (n=4), and primary immune deficiency (n=4). Most common presenting symptoms were tachypnea and cough (92%, each). At the time of diagnosis, 79% (19/24) and 25% (6/24) suffered from respiratory failure and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), respectively. Mechanical ventilation was required in 8 (33%) patients and 5 (21%) patients died of PCP. Multivariate analysis showed that MODS at initial presentation was an indicator of poor prognosis (OR, 17.1 [95% CI 1.13-257.67]; P=0.04). Compared to the patients without PCP prophylaxis, the frequency of MODS at diagnosis, need for mechanical ventilation and length of hospital days were significantly less common in the children who received PCP prophylaxis.
CONCLUSIONS
MODS at presentation was a significant predictor for poor outcome and PCP prophylaxis could alleviate the clinical courses of pediatric PCP. Prospective study will be mandatory to determine the risk factors for development and deterioration of PCP in children.

Keyword

Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia; Prophylaxis; Prognostic factor
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