Clin Exp Reprod Med.  2015 Mar;42(1):1-7. 10.5653/cerm.2015.42.1.1.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress in periimplantation embryos

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
  • 2Department of Life Science and Institute of Natural Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea. mcgye@hanyang.ac.kr

Abstract

Stress coping mechanisms are critical to minimize or overcome damage caused by ever changing environmental conditions. They are designed to promote cell survival. The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway is mobilized in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins, ultimately in order to regain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Various elements of coping responses to ER stress including Perk, Ask1, Bip, Chop, Gadd34, Ire1, Atf4, Atf6, and Xbp1 have been identified and were found to be inducible in oocytes and preimplantation embryos, suggesting that, as a normal part of the cellular adaptive mechanism, these coping responses, including the UPR, play a pivotal role in the development of preimplantation embryos. As such, the UPR-associated molecules and pathways may become useful markers for the potential diagnosis of stress conditions for preimplantation embryos. After implantation, ER stress-induced coping responses become physiologically important for a normal decidual response, placentation, and early organogenesis. Attenuation of ER stress coping responses by tauroursodeoxycholate and salubrinal was effective for prevention of cell death of cultured embryos. Further elucidation of new and relevant ER stress coping responses in periimplantation embryos might contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of normal development of embryonic development and potentiation of embryonic development in vitro.

Keyword

Embryos; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Oocytes; Unfolded protein response coping response

MeSH Terms

Blastocyst
Cell Death
Cell Survival
Diagnosis
Embryonic Development
Embryonic Structures*
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress*
Female
Homeostasis
Oocytes
Organogenesis
Placentation
Pregnancy
Unfolded Protein Response
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