J Lipid Atheroscler.  2020 Jan;9(1):205-229. 10.12997/jla.2020.9.1.205.

Associations of Dietary Intake with Cardiovascular Disease, Blood Pressure, and Lipid Profile in the Korean Population: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, National Cancer Center Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, Goyang, Korea. jskim@ncc.re.kr
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Korea.
  • 3Food and Nutrition Major, Division of Food Science and Culinary Arts, Shinhan University, Uijeongbu, Korea.
  • 4Department of Food and Nutrition, Keimyung University, Daegu, Korea.
  • 5Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Korea.
  • 6Department of Food and Nutrition, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 7Department of Food and Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea.
  • 8Dietetics and Nutrition Services Team, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
  • 9Nutrition Support Team, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
  • 10Clinical Nutrition Part, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract


OBJECTIVE
Previous studies have separately reported the contributions of dietary factors to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its markers, including blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. This study systematically reviewed the current evidence on this issue in the Korean population.
METHODS
Sixty-two studies from PubMed and Embase were included in this meta-analysis. We performed a random-effects model to analyze pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the consumption of 14 food items, three macro- and eight micro-nutrients, two dietary patterns, and three dietary indices.
RESULTS
An analysis of pooled effect sizes from at least four individual study populations showed significant associations between coffee consumption and CVD (OR/HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.97) and elevated/high triglycerides (TG) (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.78-0.90), sugar-sweetened beverage intake and elevated BP (OR/HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.33), and milk and dairy intake and elevated/high TG and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR/HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.89 for both). Carbohydrate consumption and the low-carbohydrate-diet score were consistently related to an approximately 25% risk reduction for elevated TG and low HDL-C. A lower risk of elevated total cholesterol, but not low-density lipoprotein, was additionally observed for those with a higher low-carbohydrate-diet score. A healthy dietary pattern was only associated with a reduced risk of elevated TG in the Korea National Cancer Screenee Cohort (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98).
CONCLUSION
This study showed that milk and dairy and coffee had protective effects for CVD and its risk factors, such as BP and lipid profile, while sugar-sweetened beverages exerted harmful effects.

Keyword

Dietary; Cardiovascular diseases; Hypertension; Dyslipidemias; Koreans

MeSH Terms

Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Beverages
Blood Pressure*
Cardiovascular Diseases*
Cholesterol
Coffee
Cohort Studies
Dyslipidemias
Humans
Hypertension
Korea
Lipoproteins
Milk
Odds Ratio
Risk Factors
Risk Reduction Behavior
Triglycerides
Cholesterol
Coffee
Lipoproteins
Triglycerides
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