Osong Public Health Res Perspect.  2019 Aug;10(4):234-239. 10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.4.06.

Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Correlation Between Nicotine in Umbilical Cord Blood and Neonatal Anthropometry

Affiliations
  • 1Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia. ramadanimery81@gmail.com
  • 2Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
  • 3Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
Nicotine narrows uterine blood vessels reducing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus. This study examined the effects of fetal exposure to secondhand smoke on neonatal anthropometry.
METHODS
This cross sectional study recruited 128 pregnant women in the third trimester of single pregnancies who had no chronic illness, were not active or ex-smokers, and who were willing to participate in the study. Pregnant women who were exposed to secondhand smoke had umbilical cord blood nicotine concentrations of ≥ 1 ng/mL. Neonatal anthropometry was assessed according to the newborn birth weight and length. The independent t-test was used to determine the neonatal difference in mean birth weight and length between the women who were exposed to secondhand smoke, and those who were not exposed. A multiple linear regression analysis was employed to assess the effect of secondhand smoke exposure on birth weight and birth length, controlling for potential confounding variables (weight gain during pregnancy, body mass index, parity, maternal age, and maternal hemoglobin).
RESULTS
There were 35 women exposed to secondhand smoke (nicotine ≥ 1 ng/mL). Neonate birth weight and birth length were lower among mothers who were exposed to secondhand smoke. However, only neonate birth weight was significantly reduced by exposure to secondhand smoke (p = 0.005). The mean birth weight of these neonates was 2,916.5 g ± 327.3 g which was 205.6 g less than in unexposed fetuses.
CONCLUSION
Exposure of mothers to secondhand smoke during pregnancy reduces fetal development and neonatal weight.

Keyword

birth weight; nicotine; pregnancy; secondhand smoke

MeSH Terms

Anthropometry*
Birth Weight
Blood Vessels
Body Mass Index
Chronic Disease
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Fetal Blood*
Fetal Development
Fetus
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Linear Models
Maternal Age
Mothers
Nicotine*
Oxygen
Parity
Parturition
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Pregnant Women
Tobacco Smoke Pollution*
Umbilical Cord*
Nicotine
Oxygen
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
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