Korean J Anesthesiol.  2019 Apr;72(2):150-155. 10.4097/kja.d.18.00173.

Sequential intrathecal injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine at different rates: does it make a difference? A randomized controlled trial

Affiliations
  • 1Lecturer of Anesthsia, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. raniamhm@yahoo.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Previous studies have shown that sequential intrathecal injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine for cesarean section (CS) anesthesia provides a superior anesthetic effect than use of bupivacaine alone, and prolongs postoperative analgesia. Herein, we investigated whether rapid intrathecal injection of fentanyl followed by slow injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine affects the duration of postoperative analgesia, the effectiveness of anesthesia, and hemodynamic status.
METHODS
Fifty-six parturients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged 18-40 years, and scheduled to undergo elective CS were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 28 patients each. The normal sequential group received sequential intrathecal injections of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine at the same rate, each with a 5 ml syringe. The rapid sequential group received a rapid intrathecal injection of fentanyl with an insulin syringe, followed by a slow injection of hyperbaric bupivacaine with a 5 ml syringe. The onset of sensory block, the timing of the first rescue analgesia, the doses of rescue analgesics, the degree of postoperative pain, the onset and duration of motor block, the incidence and duration of hypotension, and spinal anesthesia-related complications were recorded.
RESULTS
While both approaches had comparable spinal anesthesia-related complications, incidence and duration of hypotension, and doses of ephedrine, the rapid sequential group exhibited a more rapid onset of sensory block, a higher sensory level, and more prolonged postoperative analgesia.
CONCLUSIONS
Rapid sequential injection of fentanyl and hyperbaric bupivacaine produced superior anesthesia and more prolonged postoperative analgesia than sequential injections of both at the same rate.

Keyword

Cesarean section; Fentanyl; Hyperbaric bupivacaine; Sequential intrathecal injection; Spinal anesthesia

MeSH Terms

Analgesia
Analgesics
Anesthesia
Anesthesia, Spinal
Anesthetics
Bupivacaine*
Cesarean Section
Ephedrine
Female
Fentanyl*
Hemodynamics
Humans
Hypotension
Incidence
Injections, Spinal*
Insulin
Pain, Postoperative
Pregnancy
Syringes
Analgesics
Anesthetics
Bupivacaine
Ephedrine
Fentanyl
Insulin
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