J Korean Dysphagia Soc.  2019 Jan;9(1):16-25. 10.0000/jkdps.2019.9.1.16.

Clinical Factors Associated with Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study Findings in Stroke Patients

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, National Rehabilitation Center, Seoul, Korea. view1492@gmail.com

Abstract


OBJECTIVE
To examine the clinical factors and brain lesion locations related to the patterns of dysphagia in stroke patients in a rehabilitation hospital.
METHODS
The medical records of 116 stroke patients who underwent a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) between January 2010 and January 2015 in a rehabilitation hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The swallowing-related parameters were assessed using a VFSS. The brain lesion locations were classified as the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum, and others (subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhage). The ambulation ability was assessed using functional ambulation categories (FACs). The independence in the activities of daily living and the degree of cognitive impairment were assessed using the Korean versions of the modified Barthel index (K-MBI) and Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE), respectively. After adjusting for the potential confounding factors in multivariate analysis, the odds ratios and confidence intervals of the stroke brain lesions were calculated and the clinical factors for predicting the VFSS findings were determined.
RESULTS
Among the 116 patients, 35 (27%) had an impaired oral stage and 58 (50%) had aspiration. The impaired oral stage was associated significantly with the onset time, basal ganglia stroke, dietary and fluid intake methods at the time of the VFSS, symptoms of dysphagia, FACs, K-MBI, and K-MMSE. Aspiration was correlated with a pontine stroke, methods of dietary and fluid intakes at the time of the VFSS, symptoms of dysphagia, FACs, and K-MBI. Multivariate analysis showed that the pontine stroke and methods of dietary and fluid intake at the time of VFSS predicted aspiration after adjusting for the potential confounding factors. In subgroup analysis of the diet type, the liquid and semisolid aspirations were correlated with the dietary and fluid intake methods and pontine stroke, respectively.
CONCLUSION
Patients with a pons lesion stroke, who are on a modified diet (fluid thickening and tube feeding), have higher risks of aspiration. This provides evidence for precise clinical reasoning in this specific patient group.

Keyword

Dysphagia; Stroke; Videofluoroscopic swallowing study
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