Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci.  2018 Nov;16(4):383-390. 10.9758/cpn.2018.16.4.383.

The Levels of Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, Homocysteine and Complex B Vitamin in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. drhaticealtun@gmail.com
  • 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.
  • 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, MuÄŸla Sıtkı Koçman University, MuÄŸla, Turkey.
  • 4Department of Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.
  • 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

Abstract


OBJECTIVE
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome with an increasingly prevalent etiology, yet not fully understood. It has been thought that vitamin D, complex B vitamin levels and homocysteine are associated with environmental factors and are important in ASD. The aim of this study was to examine serum vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR), homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folate levels in ASD.
METHODS
In this study, serum vitamin D and VDR, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12 and folate levels were determined in 60 patients with ASD (aged 3 to 12 years) and in 45 age-gender matched healthy controls. In addition, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase, which are associated with vitamin D metabolism, were measured from serum in both groups. ASD severity was evaluted by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS).
RESULTS
Serum vitamin D and VDR were substantially reduced in patients with ASD in comparision to control group. However, homocysteine level was significantly higher and vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folate were also reduced in patients with ASD. Total CARS score showed a positive association with homocysteine and a negative correlation with vitamins D, B6, B12, folate and VDR.
CONCLUSION
This comprehensive study, which examines many parameters has shown that low serum levels of vitamins D, B6, B12, folate and VDR as well as high homocysteine are important in the etiopathogenesis of ASD. However, further studies are required to define the precise mechanism(s) of these parameters and their contributions to the etiology and treatment of ASD.

Keyword

Autism spectrum disorder; Vitamin D; Vitamin D receptor; Homocysteine; Complex B vitamin
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