Korean J Community Nutr.  2018 Apr;23(2):102-115. 10.5720/kjcn.2018.23.2.102.

Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Young Women according to Breakfast Frequency in Seoul

  • 1Department of Food & Nutrition, Duksung Women's University, Seoul, Korea. khkim@duksung.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Psychiatry, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul, Korea.


Although breakfast is important to nutrition balance, prevention of overeating, and weight control, people in their 20s (males: 55.1%, females: 49.9%) were reported to have the highest rate of skipping breakfast in 2016 Korea Health Statistics. This study aims to examine dietary habits and nutrient intake depending on breakfast frequency among young women in Seoul.
The subjects were 655 young women in Seoul from August to October 2016, and the survey was performed by using a questionnaire that included general characteristics, dietary habits, and eating behavior. Body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance analysis. Nutritional status was examined by the 24-hour recall method.
The participants were classified by breakfast intake frequency; "˜â‰¥ 5 times/week (n=160)', "˜1-4 times/week (n=327)', and "˜breakfast skipping (n=168)'. The "˜breakfast skipping' group had lower frequency and regularity of meals. In addition, the "˜breakfast skipping' group had a higher frequency of eating-out and late-night meals. There was no difference in total calories between the "˜breakfast skipping' group and other groups, but the "˜breakfast skipping' group had significantly low carbohydrate and fiber intakes. The participants showed lower intakes of calories, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, folic acid, calcium, potassium, and zinc in comparison with recommended intakes. Especially, the "˜breakfast skipping' group had significantly lower fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, potassium levels compared to the "˜â‰¥ 5 times/week' group. For Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), the "˜breakfast skipping' group recorded a ratio of 0.60, which was lower than those of other groups. Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) including fiber, vitamin C, calcium and phosphorus were significantly lower in the breakfast skipper group, compared to the breakfast eater group.
The "˜breakfast skipping' group showed low regularity of meals and a high frequency of eating-out and late-night meals. The breakfast regular eater group showed high intake of micronutrients and quality of meals was high in general. Skipping breakfast could lower nutrient intake and quality of meals, which requires attention.


Breakfast frequency; young women; nutritional status; nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR)
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