J Nutr Health.  2019 Feb;52(1):73-89. 10.4163/jnh.2019.52.1.73.

Nutritional status and related parental factors according to the breakfast frequency of elementary school students: based on the 2013 ~ 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Public Health, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Natural Science, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 02748, Korea. yjyang@dongduk.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE
This study was conducted to identify the dietary life and nutritional status of Korean elementary school students according to breakfast frequency and to clarify the relationship between breakfast frequency of elementary school students and parental dietary and social environmental factors.
METHODS
This study used data from the 2013 ~ 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI). The subjects were 1,325 elementary school students aged 6 to 11 years old. Subjects were categorized into two groups: a skipping breakfast group (ate breakfast 0 ~ 4 times per week), eating breakfast group (ate breakfast 5 ~ 7 times per week) by sex and grade (lower grade: 1st ~ 3rd/upper grade: 4 th ~ 6 th).
RESULTS
Among upper grade boys and girls, the skipping breakfast group had a higher rate of childhood obesity than the eating breakfast group. In lower grade boys, the mothers of the skipping breakfast group had higher rates of economic activity and eating breakfast alone without family members than the mothers of the eating breakfast group. For lower grade boys and girls and upper grade boys, the skipping breakfast group had a higher rate of parents who did not eat breakfast than the eating breakfast group. The energy intake of the breakfast consumed by all subjects was less than 25% of the Estimated Energy Requirements (EER). Moreover, for upper grade boys and girls, the skipping breakfast group had a higher rate of subjects whose daily intake was below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for iron than the eating breakfast group.
CONCLUSION
Breakfast frequency of elementary school students was related to childhood obesity. The frequency of eating breakfast among elementary school students was related to the dietary life factors of parents such as breakfast frequency and dietary condition. Intake for breakfast was less than 25% of the EER, while the skipping breakfast group had a higher rate of subjects whose daily intake was below the EAR for iron than the eating breakfast group. Therefore, it is necessary to consider diverse forms of policy support such as opening nutrition education programs for parents and practicing morning meals at school for elementary school students to provide regular and balanced breakfasts.

Keyword

breakfast; nutritional status; elementary students; parental factors

MeSH Terms

Breakfast*
Ear
Eating
Education
Energy Intake
Female
Humans
Iron
Korea*
Mothers
Nutrition Surveys*
Nutritional Status*
Parents*
Pediatric Obesity
Social Environment
Iron
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