Korean J Orthod.  2000 Feb;30(1):53-66.

Changes of lateral cephalometric values according to the rotation of head

  • 1Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Korea.
  • 2Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Korea.


This study was performed to find out the effect projection errors on cephalometric linear and angular measurements according to head rotation during taking lateral cephalometric radiography. Seventeen skulls with permanent dentition and on gross asymmetry were obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Chosun University. Total 527 x-ray films were taken with 1degrees interval from the reference position(0degrees) to 15degrees around the vertical axis (Z axis) which is perpendicular to the midpoint of the connecting the center of two ear rods in submento-vertex direction. Statistical analysis was performed by paired t-test if there were statistically significant differences between the mean of the reference position(0degrees) and that of each rotation angle. The following results were obtained. 1. The projection errors of angular measurements were smaller than those of linear measurements. 2. The projection errors of angular measurements including midline landmarks were smaller than those including bilateral landmarks. 3. The horizontal linear measurements were gradually decreased when the skull was rotated toward the film, but slightly increased and then decreased when the skull was rotated toward the focal spot. However, the changes were smaller in focal direction. 4. The projection errors of horizontal linear measurements were larger than those of vertical linear measurements. 5. The projection errors of vertical linear measurements were increased with increased distance form the rotation axis to vertical measurements. It is concluded that the use of angular measurements rather than linear measurements is recommended to minimize the projection errors.


Projection error; Rotation of head; Lateral cephalometric radiographs

MeSH Terms

Axis, Cervical Vertebra
Dentition, Permanent
Schools, Medical
X-Ray Film
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