Korean J Phys Anthropol.  1996 Dec;9(2):149-162. 10.11637/kjpa.1996.9.2.149.

The Effects of Regular Exercise on Bone Density, Muscle Strength and % Body Fat in Elderly Women

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular swimming, walking and aerobic exercise on bone density, muscle strength and % body fat in elderly women (above average 65-year-old). Thus, the study suggested that there is basic data for osteoporosis prevension, physical fitness development and health management. This research provided as follows ; 1. The bone density increases of lumbar and femur (femoral neck, ward's triangle, trochanter) site were found as ordinal of aerobic group, walking group, swimming group and control group. 2. The measuring site of muscle strength increases and % body fat decreases were found as ordinal of aerobic group, walking group, swimming group and control group. 3. The bone density of lumbar and femur get significant correlation coefficient with back strength, leg extension and % body fat in the control group. 4. The bone density of lumbar and femur were significant correlation coefficient with back strength and leg extension in the swimming group. Furthermore we can find significant correlation coefficient between bone density of lumbar and % body fat. 5. There are significant correlation coefficient between bone density of lumbar and back strength, leg flexion, leg extension in the walking group. Foremore we can find significant correlation coefficient between bone density of femur and back strength, leg extension and % body fat. 6. There are significant correlation coefficient between bone density of lumbar and grip strength, back strength, leg flexion, leg extension. Furthermore we can find significant correlation coefficient between bone density of femur and grip strength, back strength, leg flexion, leg extension and arm extension. But % body fat would be correlated with bone density of lumbar only. 7. The bone density of the sum of four group in the lumbar and femur was correlated with muscles strength and % body fat. Although swimming exercise of elderly women wouldn't effect the increase of bone density, it influence to muscle strength and leg strength increase. However, walking and aerobic exercise were considered as optimal exercise type for bone density and muscle strength increases. It would be suggested that the study supplies some information for increasing physical fitness and bone density if lifestyle and amount of calcium ingestion so on can be controlled and the exercise prescription of individual according to physical fitness level has been given.

Keyword

Osteoporosis; Bone density; Body composition; Muscular cross-section area
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