Tissue Eng Regen Med.  2017 Feb;14(1):15-30. 10.1007/s13770-016-0007-0.

The Role of the Lysyl Oxidases in Tissue Repair and Remodeling: A Concise Review

Affiliations
  • 1State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People's Republic of China. kongxiangli1990@163.com, xiejing2012@scu.edu.cn

Abstract

Tissue injury provokes a series of events containing inflammation, new tissue formation and tissue remodeling which are regulated by the spatially and temporally coordinated organization. It is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-cellular, multi-molecular process via complex signalling network. Tissue injury disorders present grievous clinical prob-lems and are likely to increase since they are generally associated with the prevailing diseases such as diabetes, hyper-tension and obesity. Although these dynamic responses vary not only for the different types of trauma but also for the different organs, a balancing act between the tissue degradation and tissue synthesis is the same. In this process, the degradation of old extracellular matrix (ECM) elements and new ones' synthesis and deposition play an essential role, especially collagens. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and four lysyl oxidase-like proteins are a group of enzymes capable of catalyzing cross-linking reaction of collagen and elastin, thus initiating the formation of covalent cross-links that insolubilize ECM proteins. In this way, LOX facilitates ECM stabilization through ECM formation, development, maturation and remodeling. This ability determines its potential role in tissue repair and regeneration. In this review, based on the current in vitro, animal and human in vivo studies which have shown the significant role of the LOXs in tissue repair, e.g., tendon regeneration, ligament healing, cutaneous wound healing, and cartilage remodeling, we focused on the role of the LOXs in inflammation phase, proliferation phase, and tissue remodeling phase of the repair process. By summarizing its healing role, we hope to shed light on the understanding of its potential in tissue repair and provide up to date therapeutic strategies towards related injuries.

Keyword

Lysyl oxidase; Cross-link; Repair; Remodeling; Tissue-engineering
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